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BACKGROUND Improved discharge planning and extension of care to the general care unit for patients transferring from intensive care may prevent readmission to the intensive care unit and prolonged hospital stays. Morbidity, mortality, and costs increase in readmitted intensive care patients. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a critical(More)
The ferret is an excellent model for many human infectious diseases including influenza, SARS-CoV, henipavirus and pneumococcal infections. The ferret is also used to study cystic fibrosis and various cancers, as well as reproductive biology and physiology. However, the range of reagents available to measure the ferret immune response is very limited. To(More)
CONTEXT Singapore experienced a single epidemic wave of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) with epidemic activity starting in late June 2009 and peaking in early August before subsiding within a month. OBJECTIVE To compare the risk and factors associated with H1N1 seroconversion in different adult cohorts. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A study with serial(More)
The ability to isolate and propagate influenza virus is an essential tool for the yearly surveillance of circulating virus strains and to ensure accurate clinical diagnosis for appropriate treatment. The suitability of MDCK-SIAT1 cells, engineered to express increased levels of alpha-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors, as an alternative to conventional MDCK(More)
A better understanding of immunity to influenza virus is needed to generate cross-protective vaccines. Engagement of Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) Abs by NK cells leads to killing of virus-infected cells and secretion of antiviral cytokines and chemokines. ADCC Abs may target more conserved influenza virus Ags compared with neutralizing Abs.(More)
There is an urgent need for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines that induce robust mucosal immunity. Influenza A viruses (both H1N1 and H3N2) were engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) CD8 T-cell epitopes and evaluated following administration to the respiratory tracts of 11 pigtail macaques. Influenza virus was readily detected(More)
Yearly vaccination with the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) is recommended, since current vaccines induce little cross neutralization to divergent influenza strains. Whether the TIV can induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses that can cross-recognize divergent influenza virus strains is unknown. We immunized 6(More)
A CD4(+) T cell response to the gastric H/K ATPase beta-subunit (H/Kbeta) is required for the onset of experimental autoimmune gastritis in BALB/c mice. The extent to which endogenous H/Kbeta contributes toward the tolerance of the H/Kbeta-specific T cell repertoire in normal individuals is not known. By comparison of T cell responses in H/Kbeta-deficient(More)
Assessment of the severity of disease due to the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in Australian states and territories has been hampered by the absence of denominator data on population exposure. We compared antibody reactivity to the pandemic virus using haemagglutination inhibition assays performed on plasma specimens taken from healthy adult blood donors(More)
The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis remains suboptimal; thus there is considerable interest in the development of strategies that mediate tolerance to autoantigens. Using lentiviral gene transfer in vivo, we expressed the immunodominant epitope of collagen type II (CII) on major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II) in a mouse model of(More)