Karen L. Kotloff

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BACKGROUND Diarrhoeal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income countries. We designed the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to identify the aetiology and population-based burden of paediatric diarrhoeal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. METHODS The GEMS is a 3-year, prospective, age-stratified,(More)
Few studies provide data on the global morbidity and mortality caused by infection with Shigella spp.; such estimates are needed, however, to plan strategies of prevention and treatment. Here we report the results of a review of the literature published between 1966 and 1997 on Shigella infection. The data obtained permit calculation of the number of cases(More)
BACKGROUND The burden of shigellosis is greatest in resource-poor countries. Although this diarrheal disease has been thought to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of 1,000,000 deaths globally per year, little recent data are available to guide intervention strategies in Asia. We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian(More)
More than 50 years of research has yielded numerous Shigella vaccine candidates that have exemplified both the promise of vaccine-induced prevention of shigellosis and the impediments to developing a safe and effective vaccine for widespread use, a goal that has yet to be attained. This Review discusses the most advanced strategies for Shigella vaccine(More)
BACKGROUND Influenzavirus vaccine is used infrequently in healthy children, even though the rates of influenza in this group are high. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a live attenuated, cold-adapted, trivalent influenzavirus vaccine in children 15 to 71 months old. METHODS Two hundred eighty-eight children were(More)
CONTEXT Group A streptococcal infections and their sequelae represent a global health problem. Recent advances have allowed previous obstacles associated with group A streptococcal vaccine development to be overcome. OBJECTIVE To preliminarily evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ascending doses of a recombinant fusion peptide group A streptococcal(More)
The health burden and mortality caused by infections during childhood remain large in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a review of the causes of hospitalization and death among children admitted to a pediatric teaching hospital in Bamako, Mali. Medical records of children admitted throughout 2000 were systematically sampled and abstracted for demographics,(More)
BACKGROUND Prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children is a global public health priority, and determination of the most common serotypes is crucial for vaccine development and implementation. METHODS We performed prospective surveillance for IPD in hospitalized children in Bamako, Mali. All febrile children and others suspected to have(More)
The authors conducted a 2-year, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy field trial of live, attenuated, cold-adapted, trivalent influenza vaccine administered by nasal spray to children 15-71 months old. Overall, vaccine was 92% efficacious at preventing culture-confirmed infection by influenza A/H3N2 and influenza B. Because influenza(More)
PCR methodology was developed to identify Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B. One multiplex PCR identifies serogroup D, A, and B and Vi-positive strains; another confirms flagellar antigen "d," "a," or "b." Blinded testing of 664 Malian and Chilean Salmonella blood isolates demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity.