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In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying green/red equiluminance matches in human observers and their relationship to mechanisms subserving luminance and/or chromatic (green/red) contrast sensitivity, we tested 21 human subjects along these dimensions at 16 different spatial and temporal frequencies (spatial frequency, 0.25-2 c/deg; temporal(More)
Brightness induction refers to the finding that the apparent brightness of a stimulus changes when surrounded by a black versus a white stimulus. In the current study, we investigated the effects of black/white surrounding stimuli on settings made between red and green stimuli on three different tasks: heterochromatic brightness matching (HBM),(More)
In this study, we investigated the effects of 192 IgG saporin injections into the medial septal area (MSA), or nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), and combined injections into the MSA and NBM, on water maze and radial arm maze performance in the male rat. The results of the present study reveal a dissociation between the effects of 192 IgG saporin(More)
Many previous studies have shown that the relative number of long-wavelength-selective (L) versus medium-wavelength-selective (M) cones in the eye influences spectral sensitivity revealed perceptually. Here, we hypothesize that the L:M cone ratio should also influence red/green chromatic contrast sensitivity. To test this, in each subject we derived an(More)
Tritan color-vision deficiency is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with mutations in the short-wavelength-sensitive- (S-) cone-pigment gene. An unexplained feature of the disorder is that individuals with the same mutation manifest different degrees of deficiency. To date, it has not been possible to examine whether any loss of S-cone function is(More)
ABT-089 [2-methyl-3-(2-(S)-pyrrolidinylmethoxy)pyridine dihydrochloride], a novel ligand at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with reduced adverse effects and improved oral bioavailability relative to (-)-nicotine, was tested in a variety of cognitive tests in rats and monkeys. Administered acutely, ABT-089 only marginally improved the spatial(More)
Many previous studies employing paradigms such as adaptation, masking and summation-near-threshold have demonstrated the existence of separate mechanisms underlying the detection of the three cardinal axes of color space: L+M, L-M and S-(L+M). In addition, some studies have demonstrated the existence of higher-order mechanisms tuned to non-cardinal axes(More)
In this study, the effects intraseptal injections of the selective cholinergic immunotoxin, 192-IgG-saporin, were investigated in mature (6-month-old) and aged (24-26-month-old) male Long-Evans rats. Ten days following intraseptal injection of either 192-IgG-saporin or saline, testing began in a battery of behavioral tests modulated by the septohippocampal(More)
In support of the long-held idea that cone ratio is genetically determined by variation linked to the X-chromosome opsin gene locus, the present study identified nucleotide differences in DNA segments containing regulatory regions of the L and M opsin genes that are associated with significant differences in the relative number of L versus M cones. Specific(More)
Inherited tritan color vision deficiency is caused by defects in the function of the short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones. This heterozygous group of disorders has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Amino acid variations of the S cone opsin are rare and all that have been identified thus far are associated with inherited tritan color vision(More)