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In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying green/red equiluminance matches in human observers and their relationship to mechanisms subserving luminance and/or chromatic (green/red) contrast sensitivity, we tested 21 human subjects along these dimensions at 16 different spatial and temporal frequencies (spatial frequency, 0.25-2 c/deg; temporal(More)
Tritan color-vision deficiency is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with mutations in the short-wavelength-sensitive- (S-) cone-pigment gene. An unexplained feature of the disorder is that individuals with the same mutation manifest different degrees of deficiency. To date, it has not been possible to examine whether any loss of S-cone function is(More)
Inherited tritan color vision deficiency is caused by defects in the function of the short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones. This heterozygous group of disorders has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Amino acid variations of the S cone opsin are rare and all that have been identified thus far are associated with inherited tritan color vision(More)
ABT-089 [2-methyl-3-(2-(S)-pyrrolidinylmethoxy)pyridine dihydrochloride], a novel ligand at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with reduced adverse effects and improved oral bioavailability relative to (-)-nicotine, was tested in a variety of cognitive tests in rats and monkeys. Administered acutely, ABT-089 only marginally improved the spatial(More)
Analogs of A-98593 (1) and its enantiomer ABT-594 (2) with diverse substituents on the pyridine ring were prepared and tested for affinity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites in rat brain and for analgesic activity in the mouse hot plate assay. Numerous types of modifications were consistent with high affinity for [3H]cytisine binding sites.(More)
Brightness induction refers to the finding that the apparent brightness of a stimulus changes when surrounded by a black versus a white stimulus. In the current study, we investigated the effects of black/white surrounding stimuli on settings made between red and green stimuli on three different tasks: heterochromatic brightness matching (HBM),(More)
Many previous studies have shown that the relative number of long-wavelength-selective (L) versus medium-wavelength-selective (M) cones in the eye influences spectral sensitivity revealed perceptually. Here, we hypothesize that the L:M cone ratio should also influence red/green chromatic contrast sensitivity. To test this, in each subject we derived an(More)
In this study, we investigated the effects of 192 IgG saporin injections into the medial septal area (MSA), or nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), and combined injections into the MSA and NBM, on water maze and radial arm maze performance in the male rat. The results of the present study reveal a dissociation between the effects of 192 IgG saporin(More)
We studied paired bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients were evaluated at one institution and underwent bronchoscopy with BAL within 48 h of the onset of ARDS. Patients were restudied with bronchoscopy and BAL after 4 d of treatment. Fifty-eight patients were initially studied,(More)
Adenosine (ADO) is an inhibitory neuromodulator that can increase the nociceptive threshold in animals exposed to a variety of noxious stimuli. Inhibition of the ADO-metabolizing enzyme, ADO kinase (AK), provides a means of locally enhancing extracellular ADO concentrations. In the present study, the AK inhibitors 5'-amino,5'-deoxy-ADO (NH2dADO),(More)