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Cervical cancer, the most common cancer affecting women in developing countries, is caused by persistent infection with "high-risk" genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPV). The most common oncogenic HPV genotypes are 16 and 18, causing approximately 70% of all cervical cancers. Types 6 and 11 do not contribute to the incidence of high-grade dysplasias(More)
Transferrin is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis into intracellular vesicles and tubules, and then recycles rapidly to the plasma membrane (diacytosis). We applied double-label cytochemistry to study whether the recycling structures containing transferrin fuse with the intracellular membranous structures that deliver newly synthesized membrane(More)
New stockpiles of smallpox vaccine are required as a contingency for protecting civilian and military personnel against deliberate dissemination of smallpox virus by terrorists or unfriendly governments. The smallpox vaccine in the current stockpile consists of a live animal poxvirus (Vaccinia virus [VACV]) that was grown on the skin of calves. Because of(More)
Immunofluorescence microscopy of cultured animal cells is often performed after detergent permeabilization of formaldehyde-fixed cellular membranes so that antibodies may have access to intracellular antigens. A comparison was made of the ability of several detergents, after formaldehyde fixation, to affect localization of intracellular proteins or to(More)
BACKGROUND Expression of recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) in insect cells represents a technology with proven efficacy in seasonal influenza and with the potential for a rapid response to the emergence of new, pandemic strains. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of rHA vaccine (H5/Indonesia/5/05) produced in SF+ insect cells using a baculovirus(More)
While the intent-to-treat (ITT) concept has often been discussed and debated in the literature with respect to randomized, placebo-controlled therapeutic trials, there has been little discussion of this issue in the context of preventive vaccine efficacy trials. ITT analysis has traditionally played a minor role (if any) in the latter trials. This paper(More)
This document is intended as a guide to the protocol development for trials of prophylactic vaccines. The template may serve phases I-IV clinical trials protocol development to include safety relevant information as required by the regulatory authorities and as deemed useful by the investigators. This document may also be helpful for future site(More)
Public concerns about the safety of vaccines arise on a regular basis. In November 2000, a workshop titled "Evaluation of New Vaccines: How Much Safety Data?" was convened by US Public Health Service agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Health(More)
We have examined the shape and distribution of clathrin-coated pits in Swiss 3T3 cells at 4 or 37 degrees C using electron microscopy with serial sections and immunofluorescence light microscopy. Both groups were fixed in glutaraldehyde and preserved further using a membrane contrast enhancement technique consisting of sequential osmium-ferrocyanide,(More)
BACKGROUND Alternative methods for influenza vaccine production are needed to ensure adequate supplies. METHODS Healthy adults 50-64 years were assigned randomly to receive one intramuscular injection of trivalent recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) or U.S. licensed trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) containing H1, H3 and B antigens (Ag) derived from 2007 to(More)