Learn More
The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe province-wide outcomes and temporal trends of the Western Cape Province antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme 5 years since inception, and to demonstrate the utility of the WHO monitoring system for ART. METHODS The treatment programme started in 2001 through innovator sites. Rapid scaling-up of ART provision began early in 2004,(More)
CONTEXT Rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy reduces the plasma concentrations of nevirapine and efavirenz. The virological consequences of these interactions are not well described. OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness and tolerability of concomitant efavirenz- or nevirapine-based combination antiretroviral therapy and rifampicin-based antitubercular(More)
BACKGROUND Lipoatrophy and/or central fat gain are observed frequently in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both are assumed to be antiretroviral adverse drug reactions. METHODS We conducted a systematic review to determine whether fat loss or gain was more common in HIV-infected patients on ART than in uninfected controls; was associated with(More)
BACKGROUND High rates of second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure are reported. The association with resistance and nonadherence on switching to second-line ART requires clarification. METHODS Using prospectively collected data from patients in South Africa, we constructed a cohort of patients switched to second-line ART (1 January 2003 through(More)
BACKGROUND Nosocomial infections due to multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are often treated with colistin, but there are few data comparing its safety and efficacy with other antimicrobials. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of patients treated with colistin or tobramycin for A. baumannii infections in intensive care units (ICUs) at Groote(More)
FORUM Tuberculosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV infection is often first diagnosed following a diagnosis of tuberculosis, with many patients needing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Starting ART in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB) may be associated with complications, including(More)
BACKGROUND Artemether-lumefantrine is currently the most widely recommended treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy is the commonly recommended second-line HIV treatment. Artemether and lumefantrine are metabolised by cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4, which lopinavir/ritonavir inhibits, potentially causing clinically(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) refers to acute or chronic liver injury that may occur as a consequence of using drugs and herbal or dietary supplements. Specific therapies for DILI are limited. There is considerable evidence for efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in management of paracetamol-induced liver injury. More recently,(More)
Mycobacteriophages Cambiare, FlagStaff, and MOOREtheMARYer are newly isolated phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 recovered from soil samples in Pittsburgh, PA. All three genomes are closely related to cluster G mycobacteriophages but differ sufficiently in nucleotide sequence and gene content to warrant division of cluster G into several(More)