Karen L. Cohen

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The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of(More)
BACKGROUND Lipoatrophy and/or central fat gain are observed frequently in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both are assumed to be antiretroviral adverse drug reactions. METHODS We conducted a systematic review to determine whether fat loss or gain was more common in HIV-infected patients on ART than in uninfected controls; was associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Nosocomial infections due to multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are often treated with colistin, but there are few data comparing its safety and efficacy with other antimicrobials. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of patients treated with colistin or tobramycin for A. baumannii infections in intensive care units (ICUs) at Groote(More)
BACKGROUND High rates of second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure are reported. The association with resistance and nonadherence on switching to second-line ART requires clarification. METHODS Using prospectively collected data from patients in South Africa, we constructed a cohort of patients switched to second-line ART (1 January 2003 through(More)
Regulatory guidances for drug stability testing during early development stages lack specifics. Consequently, companies either conduct more stability studies than necessary just to avoid regulatory questions or perform insufficient stability work resulting in regulatory questions and delays in drug development. Hence, there exist a pressing need and a great(More)
BACKGROUND Artemether-lumefantrine is currently the most widely recommended treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy is the commonly recommended second-line HIV treatment. Artemether and lumefantrine are metabolised by cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4, which lopinavir/ritonavir inhibits, potentially causing clinically(More)
Mycobacteriophages Cambiare, FlagStaff, and MOOREtheMARYer are newly isolated phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 recovered from soil samples in Pittsburgh, PA. All three genomes are closely related to cluster G mycobacteriophages but differ sufficiently in nucleotide sequence and gene content to warrant division of cluster G into several(More)
BACKGROUND South Africa has a huge burden of illness due to HIV infection. Many health care workers managing HIV infected patients, particularly those in rural areas and primary care health facilities, have minimal access to information resources and to advice and support from experienced clinicians. The Medicines Information Centre, based in the Division(More)
Efavirenz is the preferred nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in low- and middle-income countries, where the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Randomized control trials have shown mild increases in plasma glucose in participants in the efavirenz arms, but no association has been(More)
Background: Gynaecomastia is associated with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), in particular efavirenz. There is limited data on clinical characteristics of patients with ART-associated gynaecomastia in resource-limited settings and little guidance on the optimal management of this adverse drug reaction (ADR). We describe the clinical(More)