Karen Kramer

Learn More
Since 2004, the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme has increased availability and accessibility of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to pregnant women and infants by subsidizing the cost of nets purchased. From 2008 to 2010, a mass distribution campaign delivered nine million long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) free-of-charge to children under-five years of(More)
Malaria is the largest cause of health services attendance, hospital admissions and child deaths in Tanzania. At the Abuja Summit in April 2000 Tanzania committed itself to protect 60% of its population at high risk of malaria by 2005. The country is, therefore, determined to ensure that sustainable malaria control using insecticide-treated nets is carried(More)
BACKGROUND One of the main criteria to establish a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is hyperandrogenemia. Recent observations suggest that total testosterone may not be a sensitive marker for the detection of androgen excess. The aim of the present study was to compare the value of different androgen determinations for diagnosis of PCOS. (More)
There are striking similarities in health system and other contexts between Tanzania and Ghana that are relevant to the scaling up of continuous delivery of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. However, specific contextual factors of relevance to ITN delivery have led implementation down very different pathways in the two countries. Both(More)
To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at(More)
Imagine walking into your neighborhood food retailer and finding that the dairy section has no skim milk (although sodas are plentiful) and that the only fresh produce offered is potatoes and limes. This is the reality for many urban and rural low-income Americans, whose only nearby “grocery store” is a mini-mart or corner store that is primarily stocked(More)
The highland forests of Madagascar are home to some of the world's most unique and diverse flora and fauna and to some of its poorest people. This juxtaposition of poverty and biodiversity is continually reinforced by rapid population growth, which results in increasing pressure on the remaining forest habitat in the highland region, and the biodiversity(More)
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the first line choice for malaria vector control in sub-Saharan Africa, with most countries adopting universal coverage campaigns. However, there is only limited information on LLIN durability under user conditions. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the durability of Olyset® LLINs distributed during campaigns(More)
Tanzania successfully scaled up coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) through mass campaigns. To sustain these gains, a school-based approach was piloted in the country's Southern Zone starting in 2013, called the School Net Program 1 (SNP1). We report on the design, implementation, monitoring, and outputs of the second round (SNP2) undertaken(More)
BACKGROUND Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) are one of the major malaria vector control tools, with most countries adopting free or subsidised universal coverage campaigns of populations at-risk from malaria. It is essential to understand LLIN durability so that public health policy makers can select the most cost effective nets that last for the(More)