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Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug that increases glucose utilization in insulin-sensitive tissues. The effect is in part attributable to a stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The present study demonstrates that metformin (0.5-2mM) also dose-dependently activates AMPK in insulin-producing MIN6 cells and in primary rat beta-cells, leading to(More)
Insulin synthesis and release activities of beta-cells can be acutely regulated by glucose through its glycolytic and mitochondrial breakdown involving a glucokinase-dependent rate-limiting step. Isolated beta-cell populations are composed of cells with intercellular differences in acute glucose responsiveness that have been attributed to differences in(More)
Fatty acids can stimulate the secretory activity of insulin-producing beta-cells. At elevated concentrations, they can also be toxic to isolated beta-cells. This toxicity varies inversely with the cellular ability to accumulate neutral lipids in the cytoplasm. To further examine whether cytoprotection can be achieved by decreasing cytoplasmic levels of free(More)
GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. It is also released by the insulin-producing beta-cells, providing them with a potential paracrine regulator. Because glucose was found to inhibit GABA release, we investigated whether extracellular GABA can serve as a marker for glucose-induced mitochondrial activity and thus for the(More)
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