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Mice express S and M opsins that form visual pigments for the detection of light and visual signaling in cones. Here, we show that S opsin transcription is higher than that of M opsin, which supports ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity greater than midwavelength sensitivity. Surprisingly, most cones coexpress both S and M opsins in a common cone cell type(More)
Cone photoreceptors in the murine retina are patterned by dorsal repression and ventral activation of S opsin. TR beta 2, the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor beta isoform 2, regulates dorsal repression. To determine the molecular mechanism by which TR beta 2 acts, we compared the spatiotemporal expression of TR beta 2 and S opsin from embryonic day (E) 13(More)
Immunoglobulin (Ig) genes expressed in mature B lymphocytes can undergo somatic hypermutation upon cell interaction with antigen and T cells. The mutation mechanism had previously been shown to depend upon transcription initiation, suggesting that a mutator factor was loaded on an RNA polymerase initiating at the promoter and causing mutations during(More)
Recent experiments have strongly suggested that the process of somatic mutation is linked to transcription initiation. It was postulated that a mutator factor loads onto the RNA polymerase and, during elongation, causes transcriptional arrest that activates DNA repair, thus occasionally causing errors in the DNA sequence. We report the analysis of the role(More)
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