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Harmonic Grammar (HG) is a model of linguistic constraint interaction in which well-formedness is calculated as the sum of weighted constraint violations. We show how linear programming algorithms can be used to determine whether there is a weighting for a set of constraints that fits a set of linguistic data. The associated software package OT-Help(More)
2 1. Introduction Foreign accent, as an identifying aspect of nonnative speech, has been widely discussed in both the theoretical and pedagogical literature. Still, the elements that contribute to the perception of foreign accent, and, indeed, the objective characteristics of it, remain ill defined. With this in mind, numerous studies have sought to(More)
In the Optimality-Theoretic learnability and acquisition literature it has been proposed that certain classes of constraints must be biased toward particular rankings (e.g., Markedness >> IO-Faithfulness; Specific IO-Faithfulness >> General IO-Faithfulness). While sometimes difficult to implement efficiently or comprehensively, these biases are necessary to(More)
In an experimental task with novel words, we find that some lexical statistical regularities of Turkish phonotactics are productively extended in nonce words, while others are not. In particular, while laryngeal alternation rates in the lexicon can be predicted by the place of articulation of the stem-final stop, by word-length, and by the preceding vowel(More)
We show that Harmonic Grammars (HGs) translate into linear systems and are thus solvable using the simplex algorithm, an efficient, widely-deployed optimization algorithm that is guaranteed to deliver the optimal solution if there is one and to detect when no solution exists. Our associated software package HaLP provides a practical tool for studying even(More)
assign violation marks when a segment in a privileged output position is unfaithful relative to its input correspondent. • These constraints are vacuously satisfied when the positional condition is not met (i.e., when a segment is not in the privileged output position – onset in (1) below). (1) [Throughout, shaded segments occupy privileged positions for(More)
This paper introduces serial Harmonic Grammar, a version of Optimality Theory (OT; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004) that reverses two of Prince and Smolensky's basic architectural decisions. 1 One is their choice of constraint ranking over the numerically weighted constraints of its predecessor, Harmonic Grammar (HG; Legendre, Miyata and Smolensky 1990; see(More)
1. Overview This paper investigates a class of restrictive intermediate stages that emerge during L1 phonological acquisition, and argues that these stages are naturally accounted for within a gradual learning model that uses weighted constraints. The particular type of pattern of interest here – Intermediate Faithfulness (IF) stages – involves the(More)
This paper provides two arguments that constraint-based grammars should not be learned by directly mirroring the frequency of constraint violation and satisfaction in the target words of a language. The first argument comes from a class of stages attested in phonological development, called Intermediate Faith (IF) stages, in which children produce marked(More)