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Why focus on professional learning, and why does it need reconceptualising? Professionals' knowledge and decisions influence all facets of modern life. As Abbott (1988) expresses it, the professions have come to " dominate our world. They heal our bodies, measure our profits and save our souls ". Some might argue that professionals' learning and work is not(More)
This is the first and final collection of a noteworthy set of research papers, which is both historical and timely. PLNLP, the Programming Language for Natural Language Processing, which emerged at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights about 15 years ago, is ostensibly the glue that holds the volume's 22 chapters together. But it is as(More)
Standard on-line dictionaries offer a wealth of knowledge expressed in natural language form. We claim that such knowledge can and should be accessed by natural language processing systems to solve difficult ambiguity problems. This paper sustains that claim by describing a set of computational tools and techniques used to disambiguate prepositional phrase(More)
gent " functions f o r processing business correspondence and other texts in an ofice environment. This paper focuses on the initial objectives of the system: critiquing written material on points of grammar and style. The overall system is described, with some details of the implementation, the user interface, and the three levels of processing, especially(More)
We present a computational theory of the paragraph. Within it we formally define coherence, give semantics to the adversative conjunction "but" and to the Gricean maxim of quantity, and present some new methods for anaphora resolution. The theory precisely characterizes the relationship between the content of the paragraph and background knowledge needed(More)
Processing syntactically ill-formed language is an important mission of the EPISTLE system, lll-formed input is treated by this system in various ways. Misspellings are highlighted by a standard spelling checker; syntactic errors are detected and corrections are suggested; and stylistic infelicities are called to the user's attention. Central to the EPISTLE(More)
A technique is described for performing fitted parsing. After the rules of a more conventional syntactic grammar are unable to produce a parse for an input string, this technique can be used to produce a reasonable approximate parse that can serve as input to the remaining stages of processing. The paper describes how fitted parsing is done in the EP[STLE(More)
The experimental EPISTLE system is ultimately intended to provide office workers with intelligent applications for the processing of natural language text, particularly business correspondence. A variety of possible critiques of textual material are identified in this paper, but the discussion focuses on the system's capability to detect several classes of(More)
Online reference books may be thought of as knowledge bases. We describe here how information in the text of machine-readable dictionary entries can be processed to help determine the proper attachment of prepositional phrases and relative clauses; the resolution of some cases of pronoun reference; and the interpretation of dangling modifiers. This approach(More)