Karen J. Reynolds

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Virtual reality (VR) surgical simulations are among the most difficult software applications to develop mainly because of the type of user interactions that they must support. Surgery typically includes precise cutting of often intricate structures. Modelling these structures and accurately simulating their response to user interaction requires many(More)
Interference from power lines (50 or 60 Hz) is the largest source of extraneous noise in many bio-electric signals and is within the bandwidth of many such signals. In this study, two different methods were compared for their efficacy in removing 50 Hz noise added to surface electromyogram (EMG) signals free of power line interference. The first was a(More)
This study used Monte Carlo methods to simulate the effects of variability and uncertainty in inertial body segment parameters (BSPs) on joint torques calculated using inverse dynamics. The average and standard deviation values of BSPs from previously published studies were used as inputs into the Monte Carlo simulation. Data from five groups were(More)
The development and validation of a virtual generic 3D model of the distal femur using computer graphical methods is presented. The synthesis of the generic model requires the following steps: acquisition of bony 3D morphology using standard computed tomography (CT) imaging; alignment of 3D models reconstructed from CT images with a common coordinate(More)
The pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease is not well understood. A porcine CF model was recently generated, and these animals develop lung disease similar to humans with CF. At birth, before infection and inflammation, CF pigs have airways that are irregularly shaped and have a reduced caliber compared to non-CF pigs. We hypothesized that(More)
1. Measurements have been made of the sensitivity of tendon organs to steady-state, isotonic contractions of single and groups of in-series motor units in the peroneus tertius muscle of the cat hindlimb. 2. Linear relationships were found between the Ib afferent discharge and the contractile tension generated by tetanic stimulation of single motor units.(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) characterization of cortical porosity, most of which is under 100 µm in diameter, is usually confined to measurements made in 3–4 mm diameter cylinders of bone. We used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning of entire transaxial cross sections of human proximal femoral shafts (30–35 mm diameter) to quantify regional variation(More)
BACKGROUND This study evaluates whether surgical experience influences technical competence using the Flinders sinus surgery simulator, a virtual environment designed to teach nasal endoscopic surgical skills. METHODS Ten experienced sinus surgeons (five consultants and five registrars) and 14 novices (seven resident medical officers and seven(More)
PURPOSE Seizure related unconscious face-down positioning could contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy via asphyxia. Low airflow resistance lattice foam pillows have been advocated for this group. However, data to support this approach remain lacking, and low airflow resistance per se may not negate asphyxia risk from expired gas rebreathing.(More)