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OBJECTIVE To examine the predictors of antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected adults, with a particular focus on advancing age, neuropsychological dysfunction, and substance abuse. DESIGN : Prospective observational design. METHODS Participants were 148 HIV-infected adults between the ages of 25 and 69 years, all on a self-administered(More)
This study examined the interactive effects of cerebrovascular risks, advancing age, and HIV infection on neurocognition, and explored whether pharmacological treatment of cerebrovascular risk factors attenuated neurocognitive dysfunction. Participants included 98 HIV-seropositive adults (cerebrovascular risk: 23.5%; age > 50: 27.6%). Cerebrovascular risk(More)
BACKGROUND Although the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV infection has led to considerable improvement in morbidity and mortality, unless patients are adherent to their drug regimen (i.e., at least 90 to 95% of doses taken), viral replication may ensue and drug-resistant strains of the virus may emerge. METHODS The(More)
OBJECTIVE Although most agree that poor adherence to antiretrovirals is a common problem, relatively few factors have been shown to consistently predict treatment failure. In this study, a theoretical framework encompassing demographic characteristics, health beliefs/attitudes, treatment self-efficacy, and neurocognitive status was examined in relationship(More)
Strict adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is necessary for successful suppression of HIV replication. A large number of individuals are not adherent, however, and the reasons for non-adherence are varied and complex. We utilized cluster analyses to identify subgroups of adherers in a sample of 222 HIV positive individuals whose HAART(More)
This preliminary investigation examined neuropsychological performance in a sample of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative African-American women with a history of drug use. The study population was comprised of 10 HIV-negative, 9 asymptomatic HIV-positive, 13 symptomatic HIV-positive, and 10 acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS)(More)
Subtypes of working memory performance were examined in a cohort of 50 HIV-infected adults and 23 uninfected controls using an n-back paradigm (2-back) in which alphabetic stimuli were quasi-randomly presented to a quadrant of a computer monitor. In the verbal working memory condition, participants determined whether each successive letter matched the(More)
This study examines the impact of alcohol use and HIV infection on neuropsychological performance in a sample of 497 community-resident African American men. HIV serostatus and alcohol use (during the past 12 months) exerted an interactive effect on psychomotor speed, reaction time, and motor speed, and in general, HIV infected heavy drinkers evidenced(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been implicated in learning and memory. Many findings show that NMDA receptor antagonists impair memory. Few studies, however, have investigated the role of NMDA receptor agonists in mnemonic function. The present study examined the effects of nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbm) injections of NMDA on memory. Rats(More)
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