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The ancestors of fungi are believed to be simple aquatic forms with flagellated spores, similar to members of the extant phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids). Current classifications assume that chytrids form an early-diverging clade within the kingdom Fungi and imply a single loss of the spore flagellum, leading to the diversification of terrestrial fungi.(More)
Based on an overview of progress in molecular systematics of the true fungi (Fungi/Eumycota) since 1990, little overlap was found among single-locus data matrices, which explains why no large-scale multilocus phylogenetic analysis had been undertaken to reveal deep relationships among fungi. As part of the project "Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life"(More)
We present a 6-gene, 420-species maximum-likelihood phylogeny of Ascomycota, the largest phylum of Fungi. This analysis is the most taxonomically complete to date with species sampled from all 15 currently circumscribed classes. A number of superclass-level nodes that have previously evaded resolution and were unnamed in classifications of the Fungi are(More)
Partial sequences of nuLSU rDNA were obtained to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Pyronemataceae, the largest and least studied family of Pezizales. The dataset includes sequences for 162 species from 51 genera of Pyronemataceae, and 39 species from an additional 13 families of Pezizales. Parsimony, ML, and Bayesian analyses suggest that(More)
An overview of truffles (now considered to belong in the Pezizales, but formerly treated in the Tuberales) is presented, including a discussion on morphological and biological traits characterizing this form group. Accepted genera are listed and discussed according to a system based on molecular results combined with morphological characters. Phylogenetic(More)
A growing body of molecular research is discovering a high diversity of pezizalean ectomycorrhiza (EcM), yet most remain unidentified at the genus or species level. This study describes EcM-forming taxa within the Pezizales. EcM-forming Pezizales were revealed by morphotyping and sequencing of EcM root tips from forests in Estonia and Denmark. The taxa on(More)
To provide a robust phylogeny of Pezizaceae, partial sequences from two nuclear protein-coding genes, RPB2 (encoding the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II) and beta-tubulin, were obtained from 69 and 72 specimens, respectively, to analyze with nuclear ribosomal large subunit RNA gene sequences (LSU). The three-gene data set includes 32 species of(More)
The Pezizomycetes (order Pezizales) is an early diverging lineage within the Pezizomycotina. A shared derived character, the operculate ascus, supports the Pezizales as monophyletic, although functional opercula have been lost in certain taxa. Phylogenetic relationships within Pezizales were studied using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of partial SSU and(More)
DNA phylogenetic comparisons have shown that morphology-based species recognition often underestimates fungal diversity. Therefore, the need for accurate DNA sequence data, tied to both correct taxonomic names and clearly annotated specimen data, has never been greater. Furthermore, the growing number of molecular ecology and microbiome projects using(More)
Arguably more mycophiles hunt true morels (Morchella) during their brief fruiting season each spring in the northern hemisphere than any other wild edible fungus. Concerns about overharvesting by individual collectors and commercial enterprises make it essential that science-based management practices and conservation policies are developed to ensure the(More)