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There are three types of cell death; apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. The possibility that activation of the macroautophagy (autophagy) pathway may increase beta cell death is addressed in this study. Increased autophagy was present in pancreatic islets from Pdx1(+/-) mice with reduced insulin secretion and beta cell mass. Pdx1 expression was reduced in(More)
Previously, we identified calcium-independent phospholipase A2gamma (iPLA2gamma) with multiple translation initiation sites and dual mitochondrial and peroxisomal localization motifs. To determine the role of iPLA2gamma in integrating lipid and energy metabolism, we generated transgenic mice containing the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter (alphaMHC) placed(More)
Genetic ablation of calcium-independent phospholipase A(2)gamma (iPLA(2)gamma) results in profound alterations in hippocampal phospholipid metabolism and mitochondrial phospholipid homeostasis resulting in enlarged and degenerating mitochondria leading to autophagy and cognitive dysfunction. Shotgun lipidomics demonstrated multiple alterations in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Resolution of liver fibrosis is associated with clearance of hepatic myofibroblasts by apoptosis; development of strategies that promote this process in a selective way is therefore important. The aim of this study was to determine whether the inhibitor of kappaB kinase suppressor sulfasalazine stimulates hepatic myofibroblast apoptosis(More)
INTRODUCTION Gap junction channels are major determinants of intercellular resistance to current flow between cardiac myocytes. Alterations in gap junctions may contribute to development of arrhythmia substrates in patients. However, there is significant interspecies variation in the types and amounts of gap junction subunit proteins (connexins) expressed(More)
The physiologic importance of autophagy proteins for control of mammalian bacterial and parasitic infection in vivo is unknown. Using mice with granulocyte- and macrophage-specific deletion of the essential autophagy protein Atg5, we show that Atg5 is required for in vivo resistance to the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma(More)
Regulated protein degradation by the proteasome plays an essential role in the enhancement and suppression of signaling pathways in the nervous system. Proteasome-associated factors are pivotal in ensuring appropriate protein degradation, and we have previously demonstrated that alterations in one of these factors, the proteasomal deubiquitinating enzyme(More)
OBJECTIVE The present studies were performed to examine the degradation of connexin43-containing gap junctions by the lysosome or the proteasome in normal and heat-stressed cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. METHODS Primary cultures were prepared from neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Connexin43 was detected by immunoblotting,(More)
We have recently shown that adult canine ventricular myocytes express three distinct gap junction channel proteins, connexin40 (Cx40), connexin43 (Cx43), and connexin45 (Cx45). These proteins have unique cytoplasmic domains that likely confer connexin-specific physiological properties. To determine whether the three distinct channel proteins are distributed(More)
To characterize the role of connexin43 (Cx43) as a determinant of cardiac propagation, we synthesized strands and pairs of ventricular myocytes from germline Cx43-/- mice. The amount of Cx43, Cx45, and Cx40 in gap junctions was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Intercellular electrical conductance, gj, was measured by the(More)