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Electrical conduction is very rapid and highly anisotropic in atrial fiber bundles, such as the crista terminalis. In contrast to left ventricular myocardium in which the ratio of longitudinal to transverse conduction velocities is approximately 3, propagation velocity in the crista terminalis is approximately 10 times greater in the longitudinal than in(More)
INTRODUCTION Gap junction channels are major determinants of intercellular resistance to current flow between cardiac myocytes. Alterations in gap junctions may contribute to development of arrhythmia substrates in patients. However, there is significant interspecies variation in the types and amounts of gap junction subunit proteins (connexins) expressed(More)
OBJECTIVES To elucidate signal transduction pathways regulating expression of myocardial gap junction channel proteins (connexins) and to determine whether mediators of cardiac hypertrophy might promote remodeling of gap junctions, we characterized the effects of angiotensin II on expression of the major cardiac gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) in(More)
We have recently shown that adult canine ventricular myocytes express three distinct gap junction channel proteins, connexin40 (Cx40), connexin43 (Cx43), and connexin45 (Cx45). These proteins have unique cytoplasmic domains that likely confer connexin-specific physiological properties. To determine whether the three distinct channel proteins are distributed(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Resolution of liver fibrosis is associated with clearance of hepatic myofibroblasts by apoptosis; development of strategies that promote this process in a selective way is therefore important. The aim of this study was to determine whether the inhibitor of kappaB kinase suppressor sulfasalazine stimulates hepatic myofibroblast apoptosis(More)
Previously, we identified calcium-independent phospholipase A2gamma (iPLA2gamma) with multiple translation initiation sites and dual mitochondrial and peroxisomal localization motifs. To determine the role of iPLA2gamma in integrating lipid and energy metabolism, we generated transgenic mice containing the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter (alphaMHC) placed(More)
There are three types of cell death; apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. The possibility that activation of the macroautophagy (autophagy) pathway may increase beta cell death is addressed in this study. Increased autophagy was present in pancreatic islets from Pdx1(+/-) mice with reduced insulin secretion and beta cell mass. Pdx1 expression was reduced in(More)
OBJECTIVE We studied a transgenic mouse model of human desmin-related cardiomyopathy with cardiac-specific expression of a 7-amino acid deletion mutation in desmin (D7-des) to test the hypothesis that impaired linkage between desmin and desmosomes alters expression and function of the electrical coupling protein, connexin43 (Cx43). METHODS Expression of(More)
The physiologic importance of autophagy proteins for control of mammalian bacterial and parasitic infection in vivo is unknown. Using mice with granulocyte- and macrophage-specific deletion of the essential autophagy protein Atg5, we show that Atg5 is required for in vivo resistance to the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma(More)
Genetic ablation of calcium-independent phospholipase A(2)gamma (iPLA(2)gamma) results in profound alterations in hippocampal phospholipid metabolism and mitochondrial phospholipid homeostasis resulting in enlarged and degenerating mitochondria leading to autophagy and cognitive dysfunction. Shotgun lipidomics demonstrated multiple alterations in(More)