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The physiologic importance of autophagy proteins for control of mammalian bacterial and parasitic infection in vivo is unknown. Using mice with granulocyte- and macrophage-specific deletion of the essential autophagy protein Atg5, we show that Atg5 is required for in vivo resistance to the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma(More)
INTRODUCTION Gap junction channels are major determinants of intercellular resistance to current flow between cardiac myocytes. Alterations in gap junctions may contribute to development of arrhythmia substrates in patients. However, there is significant interspecies variation in the types and amounts of gap junction subunit proteins (connexins) expressed(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Resolution of liver fibrosis is associated with clearance of hepatic myofibroblasts by apoptosis; development of strategies that promote this process in a selective way is therefore important. The aim of this study was to determine whether the inhibitor of kappaB kinase suppressor sulfasalazine stimulates hepatic myofibroblast apoptosis(More)
We have recently shown that adult canine ventricular myocytes express three distinct gap junction channel proteins, connexin40 (Cx40), connexin43 (Cx43), and connexin45 (Cx45). These proteins have unique cytoplasmic domains that likely confer connexin-specific physiological properties. To determine whether the three distinct channel proteins are distributed(More)
OBJECTIVE We studied a transgenic mouse model of human desmin-related cardiomyopathy with cardiac-specific expression of a 7-amino acid deletion mutation in desmin (D7-des) to test the hypothesis that impaired linkage between desmin and desmosomes alters expression and function of the electrical coupling protein, connexin43 (Cx43). METHODS Expression of(More)
OBJECTIVE The present studies were performed to examine the degradation of connexin43-containing gap junctions by the lysosome or the proteasome in normal and heat-stressed cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. METHODS Primary cultures were prepared from neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Connexin43 was detected by immunoblotting,(More)
Electrical coupling of pacemaker cells at gap junctions appears to play an important role in sinus node function. Although the major cardiac gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43), is expressed abundantly in atrial and ventricular muscle, its expression in the sinus node has been a subject of controversy. The objectives of the present study were to(More)
To define mechanisms regulating expression of cell-cell junction proteins, we have developed an in vitro system in which neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were subjected to pulsatile stretch. Previously, we showed that expression of the gap junction protein, connexin (Cx) 43, is increased by approximately 2-fold after 1 hour of stretch, and this response is(More)
To characterize the role of connexin43 (Cx43) as a determinant of cardiac propagation, we synthesized strands and pairs of ventricular myocytes from germline Cx43-/- mice. The amount of Cx43, Cx45, and Cx40 in gap junctions was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Intercellular electrical conductance, gj, was measured by the(More)
The ventricular human myocyte is spatially organized for optimal ATP and Ca(2+) delivery to sarcomeric myosin and ionic pumps during every excitation-contraction cycle. Comprehension of three-dimensional geometry of the tightly packed ultrastructure has been derived from discontinuous two-dimensional images, but has never been precisely reconstructed or(More)