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Although ecologists commonly talk about the impacts of nonindigenous species, little formal attention has been given to defining what we mean by impact, or connecting ecological theory with particular measures of impact. The resulting lack of generalizations regarding invasion impacts is more than an academic problem; we need to be able to distinguish(More)
One of the lingering paradoxes in invasion biology is how founder populations of an introduced species are able to overcome the limitations of small size and, in a "reversal of fortune," proliferate in a new habitat. The transition from colonist to invader is especially enigmatic for self-incompatible species, which must find a mate to reproduce. In small(More)
Recent declines of bee species have led to great interest in preserving and promoting bee populations for agricultural and wild plant pollination. Many correlational studies have examined the indirect effects of factors such as landscape context and land management practices and found great variation in bee response. We focus here on the evidence for(More)
Plant invasions disrupt native plant reproduction directly via competition for light and other resources and indirectly via competition for pollination. Furthermore, shading by an invasive plant may reduce pollinator visitation and therefore reproduction in native plants. Our study quantifies and identifies mechanisms of these direct and indirect effects of(More)
Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging and reproduction of O. pumila(More)
UNLABELLED PREMISE OF THE STUDY Melissopalynology, the identification of bee-collected pollen, provides insight into the flowers exploited by foraging bees. Information provided by melissopalynology could guide floral enrichment efforts aimed at supporting pollinators, but it has rarely been used because traditional methods of pollen identification are(More)
Floral displays of invasive plants have positive and negative impacts on native plant pollination. Invasive plants may also decrease irradiance, which can lead to reduced pollination of native plants. The effects of shade and flowers of invasive plant species on native plant pollination will depend on overlap in flowering phenologies. We examined the effect(More)
PREMISE OF THE STUDY Difficulties inherent in microscopic pollen identification have resulted in limited implementation for large-scale studies. Metabarcoding, a relatively novel approach, could make pollen analysis less onerous; however, improved understanding of the quantitative capacity of various plant metabarcode regions and primer sets is needed to(More)
Clonality is a widespread life history trait in flowering plants that may be essential for population persistence, especially in environments where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. Frequent clonal reproduction, however, could hinder sexual reproduction by spatially aggregating ramets that compete with seedlings and reduce inter-genet pollination.(More)