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Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) have a critical role in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance. Here we show that treatment of naive human or mouse T cells with IL-35 induced a regulatory population, which we call 'iT(R)35 cells', that mediated suppression via IL-35 but not via the inhibitory cytokines IL-10 or transforming growth factor-β(More)
It is well known that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is an important regulator of foetal growth and in recent years, it has been suggested that the ligands IGF-I and IGF-II may, in part, mediate this effect by promoting proper placental development and function. In other tissues, IGF effects on metabolism, proliferation and differentiation are(More)
Postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS), a potential complication of open heart surgery, has a variable clinical course and severity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) prophylaxis in preventing PPS after surgical closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs) in pediatric patients. A retrospective review was performed for 177 patients(More)
The main disorders of human pregnancy are rooted in defective placentation. Normal placental development depends on proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of cytotrophoblasts to form and maintain an overlying syncytiotrophoblast. There is indirect evidence that the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which are aberrant in pregnancy disorders, are(More)
The T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex is unique in having ten cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs). The physiological importance of this high TCR ITAM number is unclear. Here we generated 25 groups of mice expressing various combinations of wild-type and mutant ITAMs in TCR-CD3 complexes. Mice with fewer than seven(More)
CONTEXT Death and dying occur in almost all areas of medicine; it is essential to equip doctors with the knowledge, skills and attitudes they need to care for patients at the end of life. Little is known about what doctors learn about end-of-life care while at medical school and how they learn to care for dying patients in their first year as doctors. (More)
  • Karen Forbes
  • 2006
Commonly held beliefs and myths about opioids within Europe are described. These include sedation, cognitive impairment, addiction, pseudoaddiction, tolerance, efficacy, cancer pain, and end-of-life care. Key learning points for refuting untrue beliefs are presented.
A randomised controlled trial was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of a hospital Palliative Care Team (PCT) on physical symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); patient, family carer and primary care professional reported satisfaction with care; and health service resource use. The full package of advice and support provided by a(More)
Idiopathic dilatation of the right atrium (IDRA) is a rare anomaly defined as isolated enlargement of the right atrium in the absence of other cardiac lesions known to cause right atrial dilatation. IDRA is a congenital anomaly with unknown pathogenesis and highly variable clinical presentation. Optimal management of severe IDRA is controversial and(More)