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The calgranulins are a subgroup of proteins in the S100 family (calgranulin A, S100A8; calgranulin B, S100A9 and calgranulin C, S100A12) that provide protective anti-infective and anti-inflammatory functions for the mammalian host. In this review, we discuss the structure-function relationships whereby S100A8 and S100A9, and for comparison, S100A12, provide(More)
Epithelial cells expressing calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins, are more resistant to bacterial invasion. To determine structural motifs that affect resistance to bacterial invasion, mutations were constructed in S100A9 targeting the calcium-binding loops I and II (E36Q, E78Q, E36Q,E78Q) and the C terminus (S100A9(1-99) and(More)
Calprotectin, an S100 calcium-binding protein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro, is expressed in neutrophils, monocytes, and gingival keratinocytes. In periodontitis, calprotectin appears upregulated and is detected at higher levels in gingival crevicular fluid and tissue specimens. How calprotectin contributes to the pathogenesis of(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Oral epithelial cells help to prevent against bacterial infection in the oral cavity by producing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). A broad-spectrum AMP, calprotectin (a complex of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins), is expressed by oral epithelial cells and is up-regulated by interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha). Shosaikoto (SST) is a traditional(More)
Previously, we reported that epithelial cells respond to exogenous interleukin (IL)-1α by increasing expression of several genes involved in the host response to microbes, including the antimicrobial protein complex calprotectin (S100A8/A9). Given that S100A8/A9 protects epithelial cells against invading bacteria, we studied whether IL-1α augments(More)
Human epidermis and epithelium serve as physiologic barriers to protect against noxious and infectious agents. Contributing to the defense against infection, epithelial cells express antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The expression of AMPs in keratinocytes is generally regulated directly by bacteria and indirectly by proinflammatory cytokines. Bacteria may(More)
Primary infection of oral epithelial cells by HIV-1, if it occurs, could promote systemic infection. Most primary systemic infections are associated with R5-type HIV-1 targeting the R5-specific coreceptor CCR5, which is not usually expressed on oral keratinocytes. Because coinfection with other microbes has been suggested to modulate cellular infection by(More)
Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum ("massive fatty deposits in the atrial septum") may represent an incidental autopsy finding or may be associated with atrial arrhythmias, obstructive symptoms, or sudden death. Antemortem diagnosis is becoming much more common. In a literature review and in a review of our 12 cases, this condition was found(More)
This report describes the clinical, biochemical, and pathological findings in three infants with hepatic short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCHAD) deficiency, a recently recognized disorder of the mitochondrial oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids. Candidate subjects were identified from an ongoing study of infant deaths. SCHAD(More)
Calprotectin is an antimicrobial complex composed of the S100A8 and S100A9 protein family subunits. Contributing to innate immunity, calprotectin expression is increased by interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), which modulates keratinocyte differentiation. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is produced by mesenchymal cells and has a mitogenic activity for(More)