Karen F. Ross

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Calprotectin, an S100 calcium-binding protein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro, is expressed in neutrophils, monocytes, and gingival keratinocytes. In periodontitis, calprotectin appears upregulated and is detected at higher levels in gingival crevicular fluid and tissue specimens. How calprotectin contributes to the pathogenesis of(More)
Human epidermis and epithelium serve as physiologic barriers to protect against noxious and infectious agents. Contributing to the defense against infection, epithelial cells express antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The expression of AMPs in keratinocytes is generally regulated directly by bacteria and indirectly by proinflammatory cytokines. Bacteria may(More)
Epithelial cells expressing calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins, are more resistant to bacterial invasion. To determine structural motifs that affect resistance to bacterial invasion, mutations were constructed in S100A9 targeting the calcium-binding loops I and II (E36Q, E78Q, E36Q,E78Q) and the C terminus (S100A9(1-99) and(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis activates protease-activated receptors (PARs) on oral keratinocytes, resulting in downstream signalling for an innate immune response. Activation depends on P. gingivalis gingipains, but could be confounded by lipopolysaccharide signalling through Toll-like receptors. We therefore hypothesized that P. gingivalis cleaves oral(More)
Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral(More)
The calgranulins are a subgroup of proteins in the S100 family (calgranulin A, S100A8; calgranulin B, S100A9 and calgranulin C, S100A12) that provide protective anti-infective and anti-inflammatory functions for the mammalian host. In this review, we discuss the structure-function relationships whereby S100A8 and S100A9, and for comparison, S100A12, provide(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Oral epithelial cells help to prevent against bacterial infection in the oral cavity by producing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). A broad-spectrum AMP, calprotectin (a complex of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins), is expressed by oral epithelial cells and is up-regulated by interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha). Shosaikoto (SST) is a traditional(More)
S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein and subunit of antimicrobial calprotectin complex (S100A8/A9). Produced by neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages and keratinocytes, S100A9 expression increases in response to inflammation. For example, IL-1α produced by epithelial cells acts autonomously on the same cells to induce the expression of S100A8/A9 and cellular(More)
Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum ("massive fatty deposits in the atrial septum") may represent an incidental autopsy finding or may be associated with atrial arrhythmias, obstructive symptoms, or sudden death. Antemortem diagnosis is becoming much more common. In a literature review and in a review of our 12 cases, this condition was found(More)
Previously, we reported that epithelial cells respond to exogenous interleukin (IL)-1α by increasing expression of several genes involved in the host response to microbes, including the antimicrobial protein complex calprotectin (S100A8/A9). Given that S100A8/A9 protects epithelial cells against invading bacteria, we studied whether IL-1α augments(More)