Karen England

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Recent work has highlighted the importance of protein post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation (enzymatic) and nitrosylation (nonenzymatic) in the early stages of apoptosis. In this study, we have investigated the levels of protein carbonylation, a nonenzymatic protein modification that occurs in conditions of cellular oxidative stress,(More)
The production of ROS is an inevitable consequence of metabolism. However, high levels of ROS within a cell can be lethal and so the cell has a number of defences against oxidative cell stress. Occasionally the cell's antioxidant mechanisms fail and oxidative stress occurs. High levels of ROS within a cell have a number of direct and indirect consequences(More)
Cytotoxic drugs induce cell death through induction of apoptosis. This can be due to activation of a number of cell death pathways. While the downstream events in drug induced cell death are well understood, the early events are less clear. We therefore used a proteomic approach to investigate the early events in apoptosis induced by a variety of drugs in(More)
The expression of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, Gremlin 1, was recently shown to be increased in the lungs of pulmonary arterial hypertension patients, and in response to hypoxia. Gremlin 1 released from the vascular endothelium may inhibit endogenous bone morphogenetic protein signaling and contribute to the development of pulmonary arterial(More)
Reactive oxygen species are produced by metabolism over time, but can also be produced in more acute conditions of cell stress such as treatment with cytotoxic drugs. Treatment of HL-60 cells with peroxide results in cell death and protein carbonylation, a non-enzymatic protein modification that typically results from oxidative stress within cells. It has(More)
Mutations in the gene for the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily receptor, bone morphogenetic protein receptor II, underlie heritable forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Aberrant signaling via TGF-beta receptor I/activin receptor-like kinase 5 may be important for both the development and progression of PAH. We investigated the(More)
In this report we show that mithramycin considerably increases the direct cytotoxic effect of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) on tumour cells in vitro. Sensitisation to TNF-induced apoptosis was prevented by the broad caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk, whereas overexpression of Bcl-2 had no effect. Mithramycin also potentiated cell death induced by Fas agonistic(More)
Appropriate activation of the immune system and effective targeting of tumour cells are the primary hurdles to be overcome for cancer immunotherapy to be successful and applicable to a wide range of tumour types. Our studies have examined the ability of bacterial-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), loaded with tumour-associated antigens, to inhibit tumour(More)
We demonstrate that GFP-PKCepsilon concentrates at a perinuclear site in living fibroblasts and that cell passage induces rapid translocation of PKCepsilon to the periphery where it appears to colocalise with F-actin. When newly passaged cells have adhered and are proliferating again, GFP-PKCepsilon returns to its perinuclear site. GFP-PKCepsilon(More)
Optimization of a 7-azaindole-3-acetic acid CRTh2 receptor antagonist chemotype derived from high throughput screening furnished a highly selective compound NVP-QAV680 with low nM functional potency for inhibition of CRTh2 driven human eosinophil and Th2 lymphocyte activation in vitro. The molecule exhibited good oral bioavailability in the rat, combined(More)