Karen Elina Christie

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Most commercial vaccines offered to the aquaculture industry include inactivated antigens (Ag) formulated in oil adjuvants. Safety concerns are related to the use of oil adjuvants in multivalent(More)
CpG oligonucleotides and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) are toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists that mimic the immunostimulatory properties of bacterial DNA and double-stranded viral RNA(More)
Both CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and double-stranded RNA (poly I:C) have documented effects as treatments against several viral diseases in fish. However, as stand-alone treatments their effects have(More)
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