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Understanding how the immune system decides between tolerance and activation by antigens requires addressing cytokine regulation as a highly dynamic process. We quantified the dynamics of interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling in a population of T cells during an immune response by combining in silico modeling and single-cell measurements in vitro. We demonstrate(More)
Variability within isogenic T cell populations yields heterogeneous 'local' signaling responses to shared antigenic stimuli, but responding clones may communicate 'global' antigen load through paracrine messengers, such as cytokines. Such coordination of individual cell responses within multicellular populations is critical for accurate collective reactions(More)
T cells discriminate between peptide-MHC complexes on the surfaces of antigen presenting cells to enact appropriate downstream responses. Great progress has been made over the last 15 years in understanding varied aspects of T cell activation on short timescales (minutes), yet the mechanics and significance of long term T cell receptor signaling (hours or(More)
The discovery of feedback loops between signaling and gene expression is ushering in new quantitative models of cellular regulation. In a recent issue of Science Signaling, Sung et al. showed how positive feedback downstream of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling enhances the capacity of macrophages to scale their antimicrobial responses to the dose of(More)
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