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RATIONALE Moderate doses of d-amphetamine (given both acutely and chronically) have been shown to decrease impulsivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to improve attention and learning in normal adults. In contrast, chronic doses of methamphetamine (METH) in drug abusers have been associated with increased impulsivity,(More)
Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injections into the lateral neostriatum disrupted the ability of rats to retrieve small food pellets with the contralateral forepaw. Similar injections into the medial striatum did not interfere with performance accuracy. Dopamine assays indicated that of the 5 striatal subregions analyzed, the lateral striatum at the level of(More)
Peak deviation analysis is a quantitative technique for characterizing interresponse-time distributions that result from training on differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedules of reinforcement. It compares each rat's obtained interresponse-time distribution to the corresponding negative exponential distribution that would have occurred if the rat had(More)
Methamphetamine and MDMA as well as similar substituted phenethylamines are toxic to DA and/or 5-HT neurons. The duration and magnitude of these effects are dose dependent and are accompanied by different degrees of recovery. MDMA-induced 5-HT damage persists for up to 52 weeks in the rat, and methamphetamine-induced DA damage persists for up to 3 years in(More)
The effects of a high dose methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) regimen on the serotonin (5-HT) system were evaluated over a 52-wk period. MDMA was administered to rats (20 mg/kg) 8 times at 12-hr intervals. Tissue concentrations of dopamine (DA) and 5-HT, and synaptosomal uptake of 3H-5-HT and 3H-DA were measured at 2, 8, 16, 32 or 52 wk posttreatment.(More)
Amphetamine releases dopamine through a transporter-mediated mechanism. The purpose of this report was to further our understanding of the intracellular pool from which amphetamine releases dopamine: the cytoplasmic pool, the vesicular pool, or both. Rats were treated with D-amphetamine (AMPH) (1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) or an amphetamine analog,(More)
In our study, age-matched Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats (275-300 g) received injections with either saline (0.9%) or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 20 mg/kg free base, s.c) twice daily for 4 days and allowed to recover for 2, 8, 16, 32 and 52 wk after the final injection before death. Radioligand binding studies with 125I-RTI-55 to dopamine uptake(More)
Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are often diagnosed with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These children show increases in reaction time (RT) variability and false alarms on choice reaction time (CRT) tasks. In this study, adult rats prenatally exposed to ethanol were trained to perform a CRT task. An analysis of the(More)
RATIONALE Stimulants such as methamphetamine (METH) alter core temperature in a manner that is dependent on ambient temperature and that shows tolerance after chronic use. Our objectives were to (1) determine whether tolerance to METH-induced hyperthermia was a consequence of neurotoxicity to dopamine or serotonin and (2) determine the relationship between(More)