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BACKGROUND Severe traumatic brain injury often leads to death from withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, although prognosis is difficult to determine. METHODS To evaluate variation in mortality following the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy and hospital mortality in patients with critical illness and severe traumatic brain injury, we conducted a(More)
urvey research is an important form of scientific inquiry 1 that merits rigorous design and analysis. 2 The aim of a survey is to gather reliable and unbiased data from a representative sample of respondents. 3 Increasingly, investigators administer questionnaires to clinicians about their knowledge, attitudes and practice 2,4,5 to generate or refine(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the literature on the use of inhaled nitric oxide to treat acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) and to summarise the effects of nitric oxide, compared with placebo or usual care without nitric oxide, in adults and children with ALI or ARDS. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Medline,(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of weaning protocols on the total duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, adverse events, quality of life, weaning duration, and length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, ISI(More)
ver the past two decades, the use of nonin-vasive positive-pressure ventilation and noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure by mask has increased substantially for acutely ill patients. Initial case series and uncontrolled cohort studies that suggested benefit in selected patients 1–13 led to many randomized controlled trials (RCTs). 14–151 Both(More)
BACKGROUND Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life threatening clinical conditions seen in critically ill patients with diverse underlying illnesses. Lung injury may be perpetuated by ventilation strategies that do not limit lung volumes and airway pressures. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of(More)
CONTEXT Renal dysfunction is a complication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant and vasodilator, counteracts renal ischemia and hypoxia. OBJECTIVE To determine whether perioperative intravenous (IV)(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare quality of care in for-profit and not-for-profit nursing homes. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomised controlled trials investigating quality of care in for-profit versus not-for-profit nursing homes. RESULTS A comprehensive search yielded 8827 citations, of which 956 were judged(More)
BACKGROUND It has been shown that patients cared for at private for-profit hospitals have higher risk-adjusted mortality rates than those cared for at private not-for-profit hospitals. Uncertainty remains, however, about the economic implications of these forms of health care delivery. Since some policy-makers might still consider for-profit health care if(More)
PURPOSE The efficacy of partial ventilatory support modes that allow spontaneous breathing in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is unclear. The objective of this scoping review was to assess the effects of partial ventilatory support on mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and both hospital and(More)