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Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces(More)
Sensory stimuli undergoing sudden changes draw attention and preferentially enter our awareness. We used event-related functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions responsive to changes in visual, auditory and tactile stimuli. Unimodally responsive areas included visual, auditory and somatosensory association cortex. Multimodally(More)
Attention is, in part, a mechanism for identifying features of the sensory environment of potential relevance to behavior. The network of brain areas sensitive to the behavioral relevance of multimodal sensory events has not been fully characterized. We used event-related fMRI to identify brain regions responsive to changes in both visual and auditory(More)
The aims of the study were to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to 1) locate pain-related regions in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of normal human subjects and 2) determine whether each subject's pain-related activation is congruent with ACC regions involved in attention-demanding cognitive processes. Ten normal subjects underwent fMRI(More)
Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that pain can affect cognitive processes, but the cortical networks involved in pain-cognition interactions are unclear. In this study, we determined the effect of pain on the activity of cortical areas involved in cognition acting as a whole (i.e., a network). Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance(More)
A problem in the study of nociceptors is that intense stimuli are used to locate the receptive field (RF), and thus the receptor may be damaged before the first responses are recorded. In addition, some nociceptors do not respond to the mechanical stimuli often used to search for the RF. To overcome these problems, an electrical search technique was(More)
The insula and cingulate cortices are implicated in emotional, homeostatic/allostatic, sensorimotor, and cognitive functions. Non-human primates have specific anatomical connections between sub-divisions of the insula and cingulate. Specifically, the anterior insula projects to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and the anterior and posterior(More)
Pain naturally draws one's attention. However, humans are capable of engaging in cognitive tasks while in pain, although it is not known how the brain represents these processes concurrently. There is some evidence for a cortical interaction between pain- and cognitive-related brain activity, but the outcome of this interaction may depend on the relative(More)