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The process of autophagy, or bulk degradation of cellular proteins through an autophagosomic-lysosomal pathway, is important in normal growth control and may be defective in tumour cells. However, little is known about the genetic mediators of autophagy in mammalian cells or their role in tumour development. The mammalian gene encoding Beclin 1, a novel(More)
Formation of long term memory begins with the activation of many disparate signaling pathways that ultimately impinge on the cellular mechanisms regulating gene expression. We investigated whether mechanisms regulating chromatin structure were activated during the early stages of long term memory formation in the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated(More)
Lymphokine synthesis patterns of a panel of 19 T cell clones have been evaluated, using mRNA hybridization methods to examine 11 different mRNAs induced by Con A. The two types of CD4+ Th cell clone described previously were clearly distinguished by this procedure, and the differences between the two types have now been extended to six induced products.(More)
Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by normal brain development followed by progressive neurodegeneration. The gene mutated in A-T (ATM) is a serine protein kinase implicated in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. The role of ATM in the brain and the consequences of its loss on neuronal survival remain unclear. We(More)
The pheA structural gene of the phenylalanine operon of Escherichia coli is preceded by a transcribed leader region of about 170 nucleotide pairs. In vitro transcription of plasmids and restriction fragments containing the phe promoter and leader region yields a major RNA transcript about 140 nucleotides in length. This transcript, pheA leader RNA, has the(More)
Beclin 1 encodes a Bcl-2-interacting coiled-coil protein with autophagy and tumor suppressor function and is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers. Beclin 1 contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal motif raising the possibility that its autophagy and/or tumor suppressor function may require regulated,(More)
Infertility is a common feature of the human disorder ataxia-telangiectasia and Atm-deficient mice are completely infertile. To gain further insight into the role of ATM in meiosis, we examined meiotic cells in Atm-deficient mice during development. Spermatocyte degeneration begins between postnatal days 8 and 16.5, soon after entry into prophase I of(More)
Atm is part of a pathway that responds to DNA damage from ionizing radiation (IR). This pathway involves p53, as Atm-deficient cell lines and mice are defective in p53 induction after IR. p53 is a multi-functional protein that simultaneously regulates distinct downstream pathways controlling cell-cycle progression and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by(More)
We previously generated a mouse model with a mutation in the murine Atm gene that recapitulates many aspects of the childhood neurodegenerative disease ataxia-telangiectasia. Atm-deficient (Atm-/-) mice show neurological defects detected by motor function tests including the rota-rod, open-field tests and hind-paw footprint analysis. However, no gross(More)