Karen D Bradham

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The bioavailability of chemicals to earthworms can be modified dramatically by soil physical/chemical characteristics, yet expressing exposure as total chemical concentrations does not address this problem. In order to understand the effects of modifying factors on bioavailability, one must measure and express chemical bioavailability to earthworms in a(More)
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in collaboration with the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a survey measuring lead, allergens, and insecticides in a randomly selected nationally representative sample of residential homes. Multistage sampling with clustering was used to select the 1131 homes of which a subset of(More)
BACKGROUND Speciation analysis is essential when evaluating risks from arsenic (As) exposure. In an oral exposure scenario, the importance of presystemic metabolism by gut microorganisms has been evidenced with in vivo animal models and in vitro experiments with animal microbiota. However, it is unclear whether human microbiota display similar As(More)
Soil properties are important factors modifying metal bioavailability to ecological receptors. Twenty-one soils with a wide range of soil properties (USA; http://soils.usda.gov/technical/classification/taxonomy/) were amended with a single concentration of Pb (2,000 mg/kg) to determine the effects of soil properties on Pb bioavailability and toxicity to(More)
The vacuum bag (VB) dust from the homes of 19 asthmatic children in North Carolina (NC) was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR. These results were compared to the analysis of the VB dust from 176 homes in the HUD, American Healthy Home Survey of homes in the US. The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) was calculated for each of the homes.(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to establish a national relative moldiness index for homes in the United States. METHODS As part of the Housing and Urban Development's American Healthy Homes Survey, dust samples were collected by vacuuming 2 m in the bedrooms plus 2 m in the living rooms from a nationally representative 1096 homes in the United(More)
In the terrestrial environment, standardized protocols are available for measuring the exposure and effects of contaminants to invertebrates, but none currently exist for vertebrates. In an effort to address this, we proposed that developing lizard embryos may be used as a terrestrial vertebrate model. Lizard eggs may be particularly susceptible to soil(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to inorganic and organic arsenic compounds is a major public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer and noncancer effects in nearly every organ in the body, and evidence is mounting for health effects at lower levels of arsenic exposure than previously thought.(More)
BACKGROUND Assessment of soil arsenic (As) bioavailability may profoundly affect the extent of remediation required at contaminated sites by improving human exposure estimates. Because small adjustments in soil As bioavailability estimates can significantly alter risk assessments and remediation goals, convenient, rapid, reliable, and inexpensive tools are(More)
The significant rise in consumer products and applications utilizing the antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has increased the possibility of human exposure. The mobility and bioavailability of AgNPs through the ingestion pathway will depend, in part, on properties such as particle size and the surface chemistries that will influence(More)