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BACKGROUND The cholinergic nucleus basalis (Ch4) is an exclusive site of neurofibrillary degeneration in alcoholic patients with Wernicke's encephalopathy. AIM To test the hypothesis that the loss of Ch4 neurons contributes to the memory disorder, Korsakoff's psychosis, commonly seen in Wernicke's encephalopathy. METHODS Magnocellular basal forebrain(More)
The present study investigated the effect of age on total and regional brain volumes and compared age-associated changes in 20 healthy controls with those observed in 12 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Weights and volumes of the whole brain and cerebrum, as well as the fractional volumes of the frontal, temporal, and parieto-occipital cortices,(More)
The present immunohistochemical study provides evidence that the kynurenine pathway is up-regulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, leading to increases in the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN). We show that the regulatory enzyme of the pathway leading to QUIN synthesis, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) is abundant in AD compared with controls. In AD(More)
Neurofibrillary tangle staging was compared in the nucleus basalis and cerebral cortex of Alzheimer's disease patients with and without Lewy body disease. In pure Alzheimer's disease, cholinergic nucleus basalis cell number, as determined from counts in serial forebrain sections, was 22-60% of control mean, with the majority of residual cells containing(More)
Amyloid-rich plaques are a feature of the aging human cerebral cortex. We have recently described another feature of aging human cortex, microhaemorrhages, identified by their content of haem, red blood cells, collagen and clotting factors, and their spatial relationship to capillaries. Here we relate microhaemorrhages to amyloid deposits. Observations were(More)
The aim of this study was to establish methodological variability in the estimation of the total number of neurones using the optical disector. Variations in the 3 dimensions of the disector probe were analysed under uniform sampling conditions in 50-microns-thick frozen sections of the human mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. There was no significant difference(More)
The basal nucleus of Meynert, incorporating the Ch4 group of cholinergic neurons, was examined in six patients with no signs of neurological abnormalities. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 80 years. Despite a number of descriptions of these neurons, few age-related studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the entire anteroposterior extent of(More)
Some of the tryptophan catabolites produced through the kynurenine pathway (KP), and more particularly the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QA), are likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously shown that the KP is over activated in AD brain and that QA accumulates in amyloid plaques and within dystrophic neurons. We(More)
The kynurenine pathway is a major route of L-tryptophan catabolism producing neuroactive metabolites implicated in neurodegeneration and immune tolerance. We characterized the kynurenine pathway in human neurons and the human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell line and found that the kynurenine pathway enzymes were variably expressed. Picolinic carboxylase was(More)
In this post mortem study, we examined haem-rich deposits (HRDs) in patients with and without dementia, using a histochemical label (Prussian blue) to show haem, autofluorescence to detect red blood cells (RBCs), and immunohistochemistry for clotting-related factors and collagen IV. The patients studied had no clinical or post mortem evidence of(More)