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Methylnaltrexone, a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist with restricted ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, reverses opioid-induced constipation (OIC) without affecting analgesia. A double-blind study in patients with advanced illness and OIC demonstrated that methylnaltrexone significantly induced laxation within four hours after the(More)
A common feature shared between several human cancer-associated viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus, Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus, and Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the ability to reduce the expression of cellular E-cadherin. Since E-cadherin is used by Langerhans cells to move through the stratified epithelium, its reduction may affect the(More)
In a previous formative evaluation of the PACT Geometry tutor, we found significant learning gains, but also some evidence of shallow learning. We hypothesized that a cognitive tutor may be even more effective if it requires students to provide explanations for their solution steps. We hypothesized that this would help students to learn with deeper(More)
The diagnosis of burn depth is based on a visual assessment and can be subjective. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic devices were used preclinically with positive results. The purpose of this study was to test the devices in a clinical setting using easily identifiable burn wounds. Adult patients with acute superficial and full-thickness burns were(More)
Early surgical management of those burn injuries that will not heal spontaneously is critical. The decision to excise and graft is based on a visual assessment that is often inaccurate but yet continues to be the primary means of grading the injury. Superficial and intermediate partial-thickness injuries generally heal with appropriate wound care while deep(More)
A lack of noninvasive tools to quantify edema has limited our understanding of burn wound edema pathophysiology in a clinical setting. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is a new noninvasive tool able to measure water concentration/edema in tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine whether NIR could detect water concentration changes or edema(More)
In this paper, we describe the ability of evaluators with limited experience to use Heuristic Evaluation (HE) in assessing a complex interface. We analyze our results in terms of the proportion of problems found by different sets of evaluators in different areas of the interface. Our results illustrate that the 5-10 evaluator size advocated by Nielsen and(More)
Contextual Inquiry is a method developed by Beyer and Holtzblatt for grounding design in the context of the work being performed. In this paper, we describe our adaptation of the method to analyze videotaped presentations. Our goal was to find improvements for a slide presentation program currently in development, called 'SlideShow Commander.' Contextual(More)
As traditional media make the transition to the web, the need for a systematic way of assessing the entertainment value of interfaces becomes increasingly important. In this paper we describe an experiment using online manipulations of traditional paper comic books to a) evaluate the effectiveness of different online presentations of a traditional(More)
Histological diagnosis of burn depth lacks consensus. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, provides an index of integument viability after burn injury. Induction of thermal burn injuries (3, 12, 20, 30, 75, 90, and 120 seconds) were made with a brass rod heated to 100°C on the dorsal trunk of the swine.(More)