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BACKGROUND Anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been limited by use of callosal rather than sulcal/gyral landmarks in defining cerebral lobes and functionally relevant sublobar regions (e.g., prefrontal cortex). We present an investigation of cerebral volumes in ADHD using a(More)
Dysfunction of frontal-striatal-thalamic-frontal circuitry has been hypothesized to underlie both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Several research groups have therefore used anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (aMRI) to obtain volumetric measurements of subregions of the frontal lobe in these disorders. Most(More)
To gain insight into the specificity of cerebellar vermian abnormalities reported in autism, we conducted a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of boys with either of two conditions associated with autism, Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome, compared with boys with idiopathic autism and controls. The subjects, ranging in age from 3 to 9 years, included(More)
BACKGROUND Megalencephaly is a frequent CNS manifestation in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1); however, its tissue composition, modification by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and relationship with unidentified bright objects (UBO) remain controversial. METHODS Eighteen male patients with NF1, seven of whom had ADHD (NF1+ADHD), were(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms by which stress hormones impact triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) etiology and treatment are unclear. We have previously shown that stress hormones, cortisol, and catecholamines induce rapid DNA damage and impact DNA repair in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This study investigates whether stress hormones increase DNA damage in breast(More)
OBJECTIVE Based on previous findings implicating abnormalities of cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuitry in Tourette syndrome (TS), the authors performed a volumetric analysis of frontal and nonfrontal tissue (gray + white matter) in boys with TS, with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS Frontal and nonfrontal gray(More)
Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1) is the most common autosomal dominant disorder affecting the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revealed distinctive T2-weighted hyperintense foci (termed unidentified bright objects, UBOs) which appear to represent spongiform changes in the white matter. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses(More)
Human and companion animal health depends upon nutritional quality of foods. Seed varieties, seasonal and local growing conditions, transportation, food processing, and storage, and local food customs can influence the nutrient content of food. A new and intensive area of investigation is emerging that recognizes many factors in these agri-food systems that(More)
The development of stage III or IV pressure ulcers is currently considered a never event. Critical care patients are at high risk for development of pressure ulcers because of the increased use of devices, hemodynamic instability, and the use of vasoactive medications. This article addresses risk factors, risk scales such as the Norden, Braden, Waterlow,(More)