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This study aimed to explore the limitations of the Ashworth scale for measuring spasticity. An isokinetic dynamometer to quantify resistance to passive stretch and surface EMG was used to verify if a stretch response occurred and, if so, at what joint angle. The authors sought to determine which components of passive resistance (magnitude, rate of change,(More)
BACKGROUND Paediatric scalp naevi may represent a source of anxiety for practitioners and parents, as the clinical and dermoscopic features of typical naevi have yet to be defined. Prompted by concern about the large size, irregular borders and colour variation of scalp naevi, clinicians and parents may request unnecessary excision of these naevi. (More)
Right-sided aortic arch with retroesophageal left subclavian artery and left ligamentum arteriosum is the second most common vascular ring. Aneurysms of the arch in its retroesophageal portion are rare. The surgical repair of a retroesophageal arch aneurysm poses a significant challenge because no single approach provides access to the whole arch and all of(More)
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