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The rhesus monkey is widely used as an experimental animal model in the study of brain function and disease. While previous quantitative studies have provided knowledge of regional numbers, little is known of the total neocortical neuron and glial cell numbers in this species. The aim of this study is to establish quantitative norms. We use the optical(More)
The total number of cells--including both neurons and glial cells - was estimated in the neocortical part of the human fetal telencephalon in 22 normal brains within four major developmental zones: the cortical plate/marginal zone, the subplate, the intermediate zone and the ventricular/subventricular zone. The fetal ages ranged from 13 to 41 weeks of(More)
A follow-up study on 180 patients treated for the first time for nasal polyps was performed. The follow-up period was from 1 to 8 years with a median of 57 months. The majority of patients had postoperative topical steroid treatment. 65.6% of patients had one polypectomy, 17.8% had two polypectomies, 10% had 3, 2.8% had 4, and 3.9% of patients had 5-10(More)
In rodents, the Otx2 gene is expressed in the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and cerebellum and is crucial for the development of these brain regions. Together with Otx1, Otx2 is known to cooperate with other genes to develop the caudal forebrain and, further, Otx1 is also involved in differentiation of young neurons of the deeper cortical layers. We have(More)
Mental retardation is seen in all individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and different brain abnormalities are reported. The aim of this study was to investigate if mental retardation at least in part is a result of a lower cell number in the neocortical part of the human fetal forebrain. We therefore compared brains of DS fetuses aged 19 weeks of gestation(More)
We studied the spatial and temporal expression of the homeobox genes PAX6, OTX2, and OTX1 using a developmental series of human fetal eyes aged from 6 to 10 weeks post-conception. Previous animal studies have shown that PAX6 may regulate progenitor cell proliferation, timing of differentiation and neural retina cell fate determination. OTX2 may play a role(More)
A long-term follow-up study was performed on randomly selected patients after simple snare polypectomies. There were 243 patients, of whom 211 underwent endoscopic examination. There were 154 males and 57 females and median age was 57.7 years. Median period of follow-up was 8 years (range, 38-145 months). The median number of polypectomies was 1.6 (range,(More)
The development of the human neocortex is a complex and highly regulated process involving a time-related expression of many transcription factors including the homeobox genes Pax6 and Meis2. During early development, Pax6 is expressed in nuclei of radial glia cells in the neocortical proliferative zones and controls the differentiation and neurogenetic(More)
Anatomical evidence of brain damage from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is lacking; but there are no modern stereological studies in primates documenting its safety. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is under development as a less invasive form of convulsive therapy, and there is only one prior report on its anatomical effects. We discerned no histological(More)