Karen A Willoughby

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The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, reproducible model for examining the morphologic, physiologic, and biochemical consequences of stretch-induced injury on tissue-cultured cells of brain origin. Rat cortical astrocytes from 1- to 2-day-old rats were cultured to confluency in commercially available 25-mm-diameter tissue culture wells with a(More)
Calcium influx and elevation of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), with subsequent activation of degradative enzymes, is hypothesized to cause cell injury and death after traumatic brain injury. We examined the effects of mild-to-severe stretch-induced traumatic injury on [Ca2+]i dynamics in cortical neurons cultured on silastic membranes. [Ca2+]i was(More)
The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AN) has been reported to produce pharmacological effects similar to those of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol but with a shorter duration of action. Also, AN is known to be metabolized to arachidonic acid. The purpose of this study was to examine the time course of distribution and metabolism of AN. Male mice were each(More)
Energy deficit after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may alter ionic homeostasis, neurotransmission, biosynthesis, and cellular transport. Using an in vitro model for TBI, we tested the hypothesis that stretch-induced injury alters mitochondrial membrane potential (delta(psi)m) and ATP in astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, pure neuronal cultures, and mixed(More)
Gliosis is characterized by hypertrophic and hyperplastic responses of astrocytes to brain injury. To determine whether injury of astrocytes produced by an in vitro model of brain trauma activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), a key regulator of cellular proliferation and differentiation, astrocytes cultured on deformable SILASTIC(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is abundant evidence that after in vivo traumatic brain injury, oxygen radicals contribute to changes in cerebrovascular structure and function; however, the cellular source of these oxygen radicals is not clear. The purpose of these experiments was to use a newly developed in vitro tissue culture model to elucidate the effect(More)
S100B protein is found in brain, has been used as a marker for brain injury and is neurotrophic. Using a well-characterized in vitro model of brain cell trauma, we have previously shown that strain injury causes S100B release from neonatal rat neuronal plus glial cultures and that exogenous S100B reduces delayed post-traumatic neuronal damage even when(More)
We have previously developed an in vitro model for traumatic brain injury that simulates a major component of in vivo trauma, that being tissue strain or stretch. We have validated our model by demonstrating that it produces many of the posttraumatic responses observed in vivo. Sustained elevation of the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i)(More)
We have recently shown that brain slices are capable of metabolizing arachidonic acid by the epoxygenase pathway. The purpose of this study was to begin to determine the ability of individual brain cell types to form epoxygenase metabolites. We have examined the astrocyte epoxygenase pathway and have also confirmed metabolism by the cyclooxygenase and(More)
We present evidence in astrocytes that 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, a cytochrome P450 epoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid, may be a component of calcium influx factor, the elusive link between release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and capacitative Ca2+ influx. Capacitative influx of extracellular Ca2+ was inhibited by blockade of the two(More)