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Bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) might promote development of binaural hearing required to localize sound sources and hear speech in noise for children who are deaf. These hearing skills improve in children implanted bilaterally but remain poorer than normal. We thus questioned whether the deaf and immature human auditory system is able to integrate input(More)
Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to the(More)
HYPOTHESIS Children using bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) develop normal patterns of cortical activity when interimplant delays are minimized. BACKGROUND It is not clear whether bilateral CIs can promote normally functioning bilateral auditory pathways in children. METHODS Cortical responses were recorded from 64 cephalic sites in 2 normal hearing(More)
A range of basic and applied studies have demonstrated that during the development of the auditory system, early experimental manipulations or clinical interventions are generally more effective than those made later. We present a short review of these studies. We investigated this age-related plasticity in relation to the timing of cochlear implantation in(More)
Bilateral cochlear implants aim to restore binaural processing along the auditory pathways in children with bilateral deafness. We assessed auditory brainstem activity evoked by single biphasic pulses delivered by an apical or basal electrode from the left, right and both cochlear implants in 13 children. Repeated measures were made over the first 9-30(More)
Central auditory responses to electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant were studied in 75 pre-lingually deafened children and 11 adults. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR) latencies significantly decreased with duration of cochlear implant use and were not significantly affected by the age at implant activation. Significant(More)
OBJECTIVES Interaural level differences (ILD) and interaural timing differences (ITD) are important cues for locating sounds in space. Adult bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users use ILDs more effectively than ITDs. Few studies investigated the ability of children who use bilateral CIs to make use of these binaural cues. Our working hypothesis was that(More)
The auditory brainstem pathways require stimulation to mature, but do they develop in the absence of auditory input? To answer this, peaks of the electrically evoked auditory nerve (wave eN1) and brainstem response (eII, eIII, and eV) were measured in 117 children with early-onset deafness who had received cochlear implants. Data were collected at cochlear(More)
In the present paper, we review what is currently known about the effects of deafness on the developing human auditory system and ask: Without use, does the immature auditory system lose the ability to normally function and mature? Any change to the structure or function of the auditory pathways resulting from a lack of activity will have important(More)
The minimum age for cochlear implantation has been reduced to 12 months in an effort to provide auditory stimulation to children with hearing loss during early development. Because behavioral measures in such young children are limited, objective measures such as the electrically evoked compound action potential (EAP) from the auditory nerve are needed to(More)