Karen A. Gordon

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Bilateral cochlear implants aim to restore binaural processing along the auditory pathways in children with bilateral deafness. We assessed auditory brainstem activity evoked by single biphasic pulses delivered by an apical or basal electrode from the left, right and both cochlear implants in 13 children. Repeated measures were made over the first 9-30(More)
Bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) might promote development of binaural hearing required to localize sound sources and hear speech in noise for children who are deaf. These hearing skills improve in children implanted bilaterally but remain poorer than normal. We thus questioned whether the deaf and immature human auditory system is able to integrate input(More)
OBJECTIVES Children require audible and comfortable stimulation from their cochlear implants immediately after device activation. To accomplish this, a battery of objective measures may be needed that could include the electrically evoked stapedius reflex (ESR), compound action potential from the auditory nerve (ECAP), and/or auditory brain stem response(More)
Central auditory responses to electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant were studied in 75 pre-lingually deafened children and 11 adults. Electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR) latencies significantly decreased with duration of cochlear implant use and were not significantly affected by the age at implant activation. Significant(More)
HYPOTHESIS Children using bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) develop normal patterns of cortical activity when interimplant delays are minimized. BACKGROUND It is not clear whether bilateral CIs can promote normally functioning bilateral auditory pathways in children. METHODS Cortical responses were recorded from 64 cephalic sites in 2 normal hearing(More)
OBJECTIVES Interaural level differences (ILD) and interaural timing differences (ITD) are important cues for locating sounds in space. Adult bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users use ILDs more effectively than ITDs. Few studies investigated the ability of children who use bilateral CIs to make use of these binaural cues. Our working hypothesis was that(More)
Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to the(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine whether long-term cortical auditory development is altered or delayed in children using cochlear implants relative to their normal hearing peers. We hypothesized that cortical development in children using unilateral cochlear implants follows a normal trajectory with long-term auditory input when the duration of bilateral(More)
A range of basic and applied studies have demonstrated that during the development of the auditory system, early experimental manipulations or clinical interventions are generally more effective than those made later. We present a short review of these studies. We investigated this age-related plasticity in relation to the timing of cochlear implantation in(More)
HYPOTHESIS A period of unilateral implant use before bilateral implantation affects timing of brainstem processes measured by the electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR). BACKGROUND EABR latencies decrease with unilateral implant use potentially disrupting binaural timing cues important in auditory brainstem processing of bilateral input.(More)