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Bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) might promote development of binaural hearing required to localize sound sources and hear speech in noise for children who are deaf. These hearing skills improve in children implanted bilaterally but remain poorer than normal. We thus questioned whether the deaf and immature human auditory system is able to integrate input(More)
Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to the(More)
HYPOTHESIS Children using bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) develop normal patterns of cortical activity when interimplant delays are minimized. BACKGROUND It is not clear whether bilateral CIs can promote normally functioning bilateral auditory pathways in children. METHODS Cortical responses were recorded from 64 cephalic sites in 2 normal hearing(More)
OBJECTIVE The role of apical versus basal cochlear implant electrode stimulation on central auditory development was examined. We hypothesized that, in children with early onset deafness, auditory development evoked by basal electrode stimulation would differ from that evoked more apically. METHODS Responses of the auditory nerve and brainstem, evoked by(More)
OBJECTIVES Children require audible and comfortable stimulation from their cochlear implants immediately after device activation. To accomplish this, a battery of objective measures may be needed that could include the electrically evoked stapedius reflex (ESR), compound action potential from the auditory nerve (ECAP), and/or auditory brain stem response(More)
A range of basic and applied studies have demonstrated that during the development of the auditory system, early experimental manipulations or clinical interventions are generally more effective than those made later. We present a short review of these studies. We investigated this age-related plasticity in relation to the timing of cochlear implantation in(More)
Bilateral cochlear implants aim to restore binaural processing along the auditory pathways in children with bilateral deafness. We assessed auditory brainstem activity evoked by single biphasic pulses delivered by an apical or basal electrode from the left, right and both cochlear implants in 13 children. Repeated measures were made over the first 9-30(More)
OBJECTIVE Cochlear implant (CI) devices are the choice of treatment for individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The CI devices provide the opportunity for children who are deaf to perceive sound by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve, with the goal of optimizing oral communication. A natural benefit of acquiring hearing using CIs is the(More)
OBJECTIVES Interaural level differences (ILD) and interaural timing differences (ITD) are important cues for locating sounds in space. Adult bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users use ILDs more effectively than ITDs. Few studies investigated the ability of children who use bilateral CIs to make use of these binaural cues. Our working hypothesis was that(More)
Bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) have been provided to children who are deaf in both ears with intent to promote binaural hearing. If it is possible to establish binaural hearing with two CIs, these children would be able to make use of interaural level and timing differences to localize sound and to distinguish between sounds separated in space. These(More)