Karen A. Dunphy

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Tissue microenvironment is an important determinant of carcinogenesis. We demonstrate that ionizing radiation, a known carcinogen, affects cancer frequency and characteristics by acting on the microenvironment. Using a mammary chimera model in which an irradiated host is transplanted with oncogenic Trp53 null epithelium, we show accelerated development of(More)
The claudin-low molecular subtype of breast cancer is of particular interest for clinically the majority of these tumors are poor prognosis, triple negative, invasive ductal carcinomas. Claudin-low tumors are characterized by cancer stem cell-like features and low expression of cell junction and adhesion proteins. Herein, we sought to define the role of(More)
DNA damage normally induces p53 activity, but responses to ionizing radiation in the mammary epithelium vary among developmental stages. The following studies examined the hormones and growth factors that regulate radiation-responsiveness of p53 in mouse mammary epithelium. Immunoreactive p21/WAF1 and TUNEL staining were used as indicators of p53 activity(More)
During reproductive life, the mammary epithelium undergoes consecutive cycles of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Doing so relies on the retained proliferative capacity, prolonged lifespan and developmental potency of mammary stem cells (MaSCs). ΔNp63α, the predominant TP63 isoform in mammary epithelia, is robustly expressed in MaSCs and is(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is transiently increased in the mammary gland during involution and by radiation. While TGFβ normally has a tumour suppressor role, prolonged exposure to TGFβ can induce an oncogenic epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program in permissive cells and initiate the generation of cancer stem cells. Our objective is(More)
The paradoxical effects of ovarian hormones in both the promotion and prevention of breast cancer have been debated for over 30 years. Genetic studies have demonstrated that ovarian hormones act through NF-κB to stimulate proliferation and ductal elongation, whereas the p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a central role in rendering the mammary epithelium(More)
Treatment with estrogen and progesterone (E+P) mimics the protective effect of parity on mammary tumors in rodents and depends upon the activity of p53. The following experiments tested whether exogenous E+P primes p53 to be more responsive to DNA damage and whether these pathways confer resistance to mammary tumors in a mouse model of Li-Fraumeni syndrome.(More)
Breast cancer is the most common tumor among women with inherited mutations in the p53 gene (Li-Fraumeni syndrome). The tumors represent the basal-like subtype, which has been suggested to originate from mammary stem/progenitor cells. In mouse mammary epithelium, mammosphere-forming potential was increased with decreased dosage of the gene encoding the p53(More)
TGFβ contributes to mammary gland development and has paradoxical roles in breast cancer because it has both tumor suppressor and tumor promoter activity. Another member of the TGFβ superfamily, activin, also has roles in the developing mammary gland, but these functions, and the role of activin in breast cancer, are not well characterized. TGFβ and activin(More)
This article describes and compares the fat pad clearance procedure developed by DeOme KB et al. and the sparing procedure developed by Brill B et al., followed by the mammary epithelial transplant procedure. The mammary transplant procedure is widely used by mammary biologists because it takes advantage of the fact that significant development of the(More)