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Closely related pathogens may differ dramatically in host range, but the molecular, genetic, and evolutionary basis for these differences remains unclear. In many Gram- negative bacteria, including the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, type III effectors (TTEs) are essential for pathogenicity, instrumental in structuring host range, and exhibit wide(More)
Plants and animals deploy intracellular immune receptors that perceive specific pathogen effector proteins and microbial products delivered into the host cell. We demonstrate that the ADR1 family of Arabidopsis nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) receptors regulates accumulation of the defense hormone salicylic acid during three different types(More)
The Arabidopsis NB-LRR immune receptor RPM1 recognizes the Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors AvrB or AvrRpm1 to mount an immune response. Although neither effector is itself a kinase, AvrRpm1 and AvrB are known to target Arabidopsis RIN4, a negative regulator of basal plant defense, for phosphorylation. We show that RIN4 phosphorylation activates(More)
The nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) represent the major class of intracellular innate immune receptors in plants and animals. Understanding their functions is a major challenge in immunology. This review highlights recent efforts toward elucidating NLR functions in human and plants. We compare unconventional aspects of NLR(More)
Plants recognize microbes via specific pattern recognition receptors that are activated by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), resulting in MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). Successful pathogens bypass MTI in genetically diverse hosts via deployment of effectors (virulence factors) that inhibit MTI responses, leading to pathogen proliferation. Plant(More)
Detection of pathogens by plants is mediated by intracellular nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptor proteins. NLR proteins are defined by their stereotypical multidomain structure: an N-terminal Toll-interleukin receptor (TIR) or coiled-coil (CC) domain, a central nucleotide-binding (NB) domain, and a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat(More)
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