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The chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR2 have been found to be expressed on microglia in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. There is emerging evidence that chemokines, besides chemoattraction, might directly modulate reactive profiles of microglia. To address this hypothesis we have(More)
Cuprizone [bis(cyclohexylidenehydrazide)]-induced toxic demyelination is an experimental animal model commonly used to study de- and remyelination in the central nervous system. In this model, mice are fed with the copper chelator cuprizone which leads to oligodendrocyte death with subsequent demyelination. The underlying mechanisms of cuprizone-induced(More)
Administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) improves functional outcome in the SOD1G93A mouse model of the degenerative motor neuron disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as well as in models of other neurological disorders. We have now investigated the effect of the interaction between MSC and motor neurons (derived from both non-transgenic(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of a network of tight junctions (TJ) which interconnect cerebral endothelial cells (EC). Alterations in the TJ proteins are common in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) like multiple sclerosis (MS). Modulation of the BBB could thus represent a therapeutic mechanism. One pathway to modulate BBB(More)
For the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis there are no regenerative approaches to enhance remyelination. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been proposed to exert such regenerative functions. Intravenous administration of human MSC reduced the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model mimicking some(More)
Perinatal inflammation causes immediate changes of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thus may have different consequences in adult life including an impact on neurological diseases such as demyelinating disorders. In order to determine if such a perinatal insult affects the course of demyelination in adulthood as "second hit," we simulated perinatal(More)
BACKGROUND STOP (Stable Tubulin-Only Polypeptide) null mice show behavioral deficits, impaired synaptic plasticity, decrease in synaptic vesicular pools and disturbances in dopaminergic transmission, and are considered a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Olfactory neurons highly express STOP protein and are continually generated throughout life.(More)
2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (CdA, Cladribine) is an immunosuppressant that has recently been shown to be effective in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is extensive clinical experience with CdA for the treatment of neoplastic diseases, especially hematologic malignancies, due to its apoptotic effects on leukemic and several other neoplastic cells.(More)
2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (cladribine, CdA) is an immunosuppressive drug that is licensed to treat hairy cell leukaemia, and has been shown recently to have beneficial effects in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The therapeutic effects of CdA have been suggested to be mediated partly through its potent toxicity towards lymphocytes. However, the effects(More)
Adenylate cyclase type III (AC3) is localized in plasma membrane of neuronal primary cilium and can be used as a marker of this cilium. AC3 has also been detected in some other primary cilia such as those of fibroblasts, synoviocytes or astrocytes. Despite the presence of a cilium in almost all cell types, we show that AC3 is not a common marker of all(More)