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The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system are major effector systems that serve to maintain homeostasis during exposure to stressors. In the past decade, interest in neurochemical regulation and in pathways controlling activation of the HPA axis has focused on catecholamines, which are present in high(More)
Over 60% of patients with Cushing's syndrome suffer from major depression, which frequently abates after correction of the hypercortisolism. The mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic (DAergic) systems are thought to participate in psychiatric disorders. In this study, we investigated whether hypercortisolemia affects indices of DAergic activity in the(More)
Release of norepinepriine (NE) and its metabolites in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) was examined using in vivo microdialysis in conscious rats before, during and after 2 h of immobilization. Microdialysate levels of NE and of dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) increased by 170-290% above basal levels during the 1st h of immobilization and(More)
PURPOSE Radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) involves various functional imaging techniques and approaches for accurate diagnosis, staging and tumour characterization. The purpose of the present guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in performing, interpreting and reporting the results of the currently(More)
CRH is a main regulator of the stress response. This neuropeptide and its specific receptors, CRHR-1 and CRHR-2, are disseminated throughout the central nervous system. There is a significant interspecies difference in the distribution of CRHR within the central nervous system. CRH-R1 antagonists may attenuate stress-related behavior in rats without(More)
Administration of glucocorticoids decreases the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone and in vitro turnover of norepinephrine (NE) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and immobilization (IMMO) markedly increases NE release and stimulates corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the PVN. This study assessed whether(More)
Selye defined stress as the nonspecific response of the body to any demand. Stressors elicit both pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathoadrenomedullary responses. One can test Selye's concept by comparing magnitudes of responses at different stress intensities and assuming that the magnitudes vary with stress intensity, with the prediction that, at different(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are established neurotransmitters in the brain. This study examined whether, in conscious, free-moving rats, increased concentrations of endogenous 5-HT in extracellular fluid of the corpus striatum affect local release of endogenous DA. Administration of the 5-HT reuptake blocker alaproclate via a microdialysis probe(More)
Central catecholaminergic pathways carrying pain-related signals to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were investigated in laboratory rats. Four per cent formalin injected subcutaneously was employed as a stressful stimulus. Neuronal activity in brainstem catecholaminergic and paraventricular neurones was assessed by Fos immunohistochemistry.(More)
Paragangliomas are neural crest-derived tumors, arising either from chromaffin sympathetic tissue (in adrenal, abdominal, intra-pelvic, or thoracic paraganglia) or from parasympathetic tissue (in head and neck paraganglia). They have a specific cellular metabolism, with the ability to synthesize, store, and secrete catecholamines (although most head and(More)