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OBJECTIVE The aim was to formulate clinical practice guidelines for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). PARTICIPANTS The Task Force included a chair selected by the Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS), seven experts in the field, and a methodologist. The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. EVIDENCE This(More)
Rediscovery of cold-activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans has boosted research interest in identifying BAT activators for metabolic benefits. Of particular interest are cytokines capable of fat browning. Irisin, derived from FNDC5, is an exercise-induced myokine that drives brown-fat-like thermogenesis in murine white fat. Here we explored whether(More)
Despite the fact that many research articles have been written about stress and stress-related diseases, no scientifically accepted definition of stress exists. Selye introduced and popularized stress as a medical and scientific idea. He did not deny the existence of stressor-specific response patterns; however, he emphasized that such responses did not(More)
CONTEXT Ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS) is difficult to diagnose and treat. We present our experience with EAS from 1983 to 2004. SETTING The study was performed at a tertiary care clinical research center. PATIENTS Ninety patients, aged 8-72 yr, including 48 females were included in the study. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOME MEASURES Tests included 8 mg(More)
Pheochromocytoma is a rare but important tumor of chromaffin cells that is frequently considered in the evaluation of hypertension, arrhythmias, or panic disorder and in the follow-up of patients with particular genetic diseases. This report provides an update about the genetics, neurochemical diagnosis, localization by imaging, and surgical management of(More)
CONTEXT Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on biochemical evidence of catecholamine production by the tumor. However, the best test to establish the diagnosis has not been determined. OBJECTIVE To determine the biochemical test or combination of tests that provides the best method for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
Pheochromocytomas in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome produce exclusively norepinephrine, whereas those in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) produce epinephrine. This study examined the pathways activated in VHL-associated pheochromocytomas by comparing gene expression profiles in VHL and MEN 2 tumors in relationship to profiles in sporadic(More)
Pheochromocytomas (PHEO) (1–3) are catecholamineproducing tumors that arise from chromaffin cells. PHEO are mostly situated within the adrenal medulla, although in about 9–23% of cases, tumors develop from extraadrenal chromaffin tissue (adjacent to sympathetic ganglia of the neck, mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis) and are often referred to as(More)
Pheochromocytomas are rare catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors that are usually benign, but which may also present as or develop into a malignancy. Predicting such behavior is notoriously difficult and there are currently no curative treatments for malignant tumors. This report follows from a workshop at the Banbury Conference Center, Cold Spring(More)
The diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma depend critically on effective means to localize the tumor. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have good sensitivity but poor specificity for detecting pheochromocytoma, and nuclear imaging approaches such as (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy have limited sensitivity. Here we report(More)