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Despite the fact that many research articles have been written about stress and stress-related diseases, no scientifically accepted definition of stress exists. Selye introduced and popularized stress as a medical and scientific idea. He did not deny the existence of stressor-specific response patterns; however, he emphasized that such responses did not(More)
Pheochromocytoma is a rare but important tumor of chromaffin cells that is frequently considered in the evaluation of hypertension, arrhythmias, or panic disorder and in the follow-up of patients with particular genetic diseases. This report provides an update about the genetics, neurochemical diagnosis, localization by imaging, and surgical management of(More)
Rediscovery of cold-activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans has boosted research interest in identifying BAT activators for metabolic benefits. Of particular interest are cytokines capable of fat browning. Irisin, derived from FNDC5, is an exercise-induced myokine that drives brown-fat-like thermogenesis in murine white fat. Here we explored whether(More)
CONTEXT Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on biochemical evidence of catecholamine production by the tumor. However, the best test to establish the diagnosis has not been determined. OBJECTIVE To determine the biochemical test or combination of tests that provides the best method for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
Pheochromocytomas in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome produce exclusively norepinephrine, whereas those in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) produce epinephrine. This study examined the pathways activated in VHL-associated pheochromocytomas by comparing gene expression profiles in VHL and MEN 2 tumors in relationship to profiles in sporadic(More)
CONTEXT Ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS) is difficult to diagnose and treat. We present our experience with EAS from 1983 to 2004. SETTING The study was performed at a tertiary care clinical research center. PATIENTS Ninety patients, aged 8-72 yr, including 48 females were included in the study. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOME MEASURES Tests included 8 mg(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim was to formulate clinical practice guidelines for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). PARTICIPANTS The Task Force included a chair selected by the Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS), seven experts in the field, and a methodologist. The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. EVIDENCE This(More)
This study examined the mechanisms linking different biochemical and clinical phenotypes of pheochromocytoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome to underlying differences in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, and of phenylethanolamine(More)
Radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) involves various functional imaging techniques and approaches for accurate diagnosis, staging and tumour characterization. The purpose of the present guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in performing, interpreting and reporting the results of the currently(More)