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Despite the fact that many research articles have been written about stress and stress-related diseases, no scientifically accepted definition of stress exists. Selye introduced and popularized stress as a medical and scientific idea. He did not deny the existence of stressor-specific response patterns; however, he emphasized that such responses did not(More)
Over 60% of patients with Cushing's syndrome suffer from major depression, which frequently abates after correction of the hypercortisolism. The mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic (DAergic) systems are thought to participate in psychiatric disorders. In this study, we investigated whether hypercortisolemia affects indices of DAergic activity in the(More)
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system are major effector systems that serve to maintain homeostasis during exposure to stressors. In the past decade, interest in neurochemical regulation and in pathways controlling activation of the HPA axis has focused on catecholamines, which are present in high(More)
Glucocorticoids and stress are known to influence the synthesis of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at a variety of sites in brain, including the hypothalamus and amygdala. The recent cloning of the CRH receptor (CRH-R) enabled us to determine whether glucocorticoids or stress influenced CRH action via regulation of CRH-R. We, therefore, used in situ(More)
New information has accrued from in vivo microdialysis studies about stress-related changes in norepinephrine concentrations in extracellular fluid of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Our data on the effects of lower brainstem hemisections show that paraventricular noradrenergic(More)
The hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) system and sympathoneural and adrenomedullary systems are major effector systems that serve to maintain homeostasis during stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, a determinant of both HPA and autonomic responses to stress, is under the control of(More)
PURPOSE Radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) involves various functional imaging techniques and approaches for accurate diagnosis, staging and tumour characterization. The purpose of the present guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in performing, interpreting and reporting the results of the currently(More)
CRH is a main regulator of the stress response. This neuropeptide and its specific receptors, CRHR-1 and CRHR-2, are disseminated throughout the central nervous system. There is a significant interspecies difference in the distribution of CRHR within the central nervous system. CRH-R1 antagonists may attenuate stress-related behavior in rats without(More)
Changes in plasma levels of epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) were investigated in humans exposed to physical exercise (WL), to psychic stressor (mental arithmetic test, MAT), and to oral glucose administration (oGTT) before and during a stay in microgravity (real space flight, SF) or in simulated microgravity (head-down bed rest, HDBR). A permanent(More)
Selye defined stress as the nonspecific response of the body to any demand. Stressors elicit both pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathoadrenomedullary responses. One can test Selye's concept by comparing magnitudes of responses at different stress intensities and assuming that the magnitudes vary with stress intensity, with the prediction that, at different(More)