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OBJECTIVE The aim was to formulate clinical practice guidelines for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). PARTICIPANTS The Task Force included a chair selected by the Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS), seven experts in the field, and a methodologist. The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. EVIDENCE This(More)
BACKGROUND Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuro-endocrine tumours that occur sporadically and in several hereditary tumour syndromes, including the phaeochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndrome. This syndrome is caused by germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB), C (SDHC), or D (SDHD) genes. Clinically, the(More)
Despite the fact that many research articles have been written about stress and stress-related diseases, no scientifically accepted definition of stress exists. Selye introduced and popularized stress as a medical and scientific idea. He did not deny the existence of stressor-specific response patterns; however, he emphasized that such responses did not(More)
CONTEXT Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on biochemical evidence of catecholamine production by the tumor. However, the best test to establish the diagnosis has not been determined. OBJECTIVE To determine the biochemical test or combination of tests that provides the best method for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS(More)
Rediscovery of cold-activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans has boosted research interest in identifying BAT activators for metabolic benefits. Of particular interest are cytokines capable of fat browning. Irisin, derived from FNDC5, is an exercise-induced myokine that drives brown-fat-like thermogenesis in murine white fat. Here we explored whether(More)
Pheochromocytoma is a rare but important tumor of chromaffin cells that is frequently considered in the evaluation of hypertension, arrhythmias, or panic disorder and in the follow-up of patients with particular genetic diseases. This report provides an update about the genetics, neurochemical diagnosis, localization by imaging, and surgical management of(More)
Glucocorticoids and stress are known to influence the synthesis of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at a variety of sites in brain, including the hypothalamus and amygdala. The recent cloning of the CRH receptor (CRH-R) enabled us to determine whether glucocorticoids or stress influenced CRH action via regulation of CRH-R. We, therefore, used in situ(More)
Heterozygous disruption of Gnas, the gene encoding the stimulatory G-protein alpha subunit (G(s)alpha), leads to distinct phenotypes depending on whether the maternal (m-/+) or paternal (+/p-) allele is disrupted. G(s)alpha is imprinted, with the maternal allele preferentially expressed in adipose tissue. Hence, expression is decreased in m-/+ mice but(More)
AIMS Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are mitochondrial flavoenzymes responsible for neurotransmitter and biogenic amines catabolism. MAO-A contributes to heart failure progression via enhanced norepinephrine catabolism and oxidative stress. The potential pathogenetic role of the isoenzyme MAO-B in cardiac diseases is currently unknown. Moreover, it is has not(More)