Karel Antoni Schat

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Marek's disease (MD) infection has been controlled effectively by vaccination using nononcogenic and/or attenuated oncogenic Marek's disease virus (MDV) vaccines. Thus far, there is little knowledge on the role of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses during MDV infection or vaccination. To elucidate the importance of MDV proteins in CMI responses, the pp38,(More)
The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis and immunity of Marek's disease (MD), a herpesvirus-induced T-cell lymphoma in chickens, is poorly understood. Two different experiments were used to examine the potential role of particular cytokines in the pathogenesis and immune responses of MD. First, chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) were stimulated with(More)
The RB-1B and ALA-8 strains of Marek's disease (MD) virus, which were isolated from chickens with MD and which had been vaccinated with the herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT), were evaluated for their oncogenic potential in genetically susceptible (P-line) and resistant (N-line, PDRC) chickens. RB-1B and ALA-8 were both highly oncogenic, causing a high incidence(More)
A TaqMan-based real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay utilizing the mgc2 gene was developed to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum in conjunctival swabs of experimentally infected house finches. The assay was demonstrated to be quantitative by the standard curve method with reproducible results within runs and between runs. The detection(More)
We examined whether strategies of reproductive allocation may reduce long-term immunocompetence through the effects of manipulated effort on secondary or acquired immunity. We tested whether increased reproductive effort leads to reduced immune function and survival by manipulating brood size in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and exposing breeding(More)
Poult enteritis and mortality syndrome (PEMS) is an acute, infectious intestinal disease of turkey poults, characterized by high mortality and 100% morbidity, that decimated the turkey industry in the mid-1990s. The etiology of PEMS is not completely understood. This report describes the testing of various filtrates of fecal material from control and(More)
Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae, is a ubiquitous pathogen of chickens and has a worldwide distribution. CAV shares some similarities with Torque teno virus (TTV) and Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) such as coding for a protein inducing apoptosis and a protein with a dual-specificity phosphatase. In(More)
The replication of Marek's disease herpesvirus (MDV) and herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures was inhibited by the addition of S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, a nitric oxide (NO)-generating compound, in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of CEF culture, prepared from 11-day-old embryos, with recombinant chicken gamma(More)
Infection with chicken anaemia virus (CAV), a circovirus, can result in immunosuppression and subsequent increased susceptibility to secondary infections. This is the first report of impairment of pathogen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) after natural and experimental infection of chickens with CAV and Marek's disease virus (MDV) or(More)