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The active neurotoxin of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), exerts its lethal effect by inhibiting Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC). MPP+ shuts down aerobic oxidative phosphorylation and ETC-mediated ATP synthesis. The present investigation examines anaerobic survival during MPP+ toxicity(More)
Long-term treatment of levodopa for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is known to elevate homocysteine level in their plasma. The present study was designed to examine the possible neurotoxic effects of the increased homocysteine level on the dopaminergic system. Homocysteine was administered into Sprague-Dawley male rats intracerebroventricularly or(More)
Glial cell monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity has been implicated as a contributor to oxidative neuronal damage associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. The attenuation of MAO activity may provide protection against oxidative neurodegeneration. In this investigation, the presence of MAO-B in rat C6 astrocyte cells was substantiated by(More)
Divergent selection for pentobarbital sedation-time response was practiced in mice for 9 generations. At the end of 9 generations of selection, the long-sedation-time line (LST) slept an average of 433 min; the short sedation time line (SST) slept an average of 29 min. The control line (C) slept an average of 71 min. These differences represent an almost(More)
Although the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not fully understood, there are numerous studies that have linked the increased risk for developing PD to pesticides exposure including paraquat (PQ). Moreover, the exposure to a combination of compounds or chemical mixtures has been suggested to further increase this risk. In the current study, the(More)
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) cocaine-HCI twice daily for 14 consecutive days (total of 50 mg/kg), while control animals received an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline. After three days of withdrawal, the animals were sacrificed for dissection of striatal (STR) and nucleus accumbens (NA) brain regions. The(More)
The effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) alteration on brain dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), beta-endorphin (beta E) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) was studied in Sprague-Dawley diabetic and control rats. Diabetes was induced using alloxan (45 mg/kg), 15 days prior to sacrificing. Both control and diabetic animals were treated with either(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of altering the concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on beta-endorphin (beta-Ep) content in the hypothalamus, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG)-rostral pons regions of the rat brain. The selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), significantly lowered beta-Ep content in(More)
Male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with 2.0 g/kg of ethanol and analyzed 1 h later at 8 specific times of the day showed diurnal rhythms for alcohol concentrations in the blood, urine, brain and liver tissues. The circadian fluctuation noted for the concentrations of blood and tissue ethanol might indicate a diurnal variation in the enzymatic metabolism of(More)
Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production in the brain has been correlated with neurotoxicity and the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. NO production from neuroglial cells surrounding neurons contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of these diseases. The suppression of NO production in these cells may be beneficial in retarding many of(More)