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A connectionist approach to processing in quasi-regular domains, as exemplified by English word reading, is developed. Networks using appropriately structured orthographic and phonological representations were trained to read both regular and exception words, and yet were also able to read pronounceable nonwords as well as skilled readers. A mathematical(More)
Mr M, a patient with semantic dementia--a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the gradual deterioration of semantic memory--was being driven through the countryside to visit a friend and was able to remind his wife where to turn along the not-recently-travelled route. Then, pointing at the sheep in the field, he asked her "What are those(More)
This article provides a classification of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and its 3 main variants to improve the uniformity of case reporting and the reliability of research results. Criteria for the 3 variants of PPA--nonfluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic--were developed by an international group of PPA investigators who convened on 3 occasions(More)
We report five patients with a stereotyped clinical syndrome characterized by fluent dysphasia with severe anomia, reduced vocabulary and prominent impairment of single-word comprehension, progressing to a stage of virtually complete dissolution of the semantic components of language. A marked reduction in the ability to generate exemplars from restricted(More)
The processes required for object naming were addressed in a study of patients with semantic dementia (a selective decline of semantic memory resulting from progressive temporal lobe atrophy) and in a computational model of single-word production. Although all patients with semantic dementia are impaired in both single-word production and comprehension,(More)
The cortical anatomy of 6 patients with semantic dementia (the temporal lobe variant of frontotemporal dementia) was contrasted with that of a group of age-matched normal subjects by using voxel-based morphometry, a technique that identifies changes in gray matter volume on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Among the circumscribed regions of neuronal loss, the left(More)
Wernicke (1900, as cited in G. H. Eggert, 1977) suggested that semantic knowledge arises from the interaction of perceptual representations of objects and words. The authors present a parallel distributed processing implementation of this theory, in which semantic representations emerge from mechanisms that acquire the mappings between visual(More)
The clinical presentation of patients with semantic dementia is dominated by anomia and poor verbal comprehension. Although a number of researchers have argued that these patients have impaired comprehension of non-verbal as well as verbal stimuli, the evidence for semantic deterioration is mainly derived from tasks that include some form of verbal input or(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize and quantify the patterns of temporal lobe atrophy in AD vs semantic dementia and to relate the findings to the cognitive profiles. Medial temporal lobe atrophy is well described in AD. In temporal variant frontotemporal dementia (semantic dementia), clinical studies suggest polar and inferolateral temporal atrophy with hippocampal(More)
We investigated six patients with progressive focal dementia or progressive aphasia, who showed impairments in knowledge of word meaning ranging from moderate to very severe. In all cases, a test of oral word reading demonstrated preserved reading of words with regular spelling-to-sound correspondences (e.g. MINT), but impaired reading of words with(More)