Kara Jean Pavone

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The widely used electroencephalogram-based indices for depth-of-anesthesia monitoring assume that the same index value defines the same level of unconsciousness for all anesthetics. In contrast, we show that different anesthetics act at different molecular targets and neural circuits to produce distinct brain states that are readily visible in the(More)
BACKGROUND The neural mechanisms of anesthetic vapors have not been studied in depth. However, modeling and experimental studies on the intravenous anesthetic propofol indicate that potentiation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors leads to a state of thalamocortical synchrony, observed as coherent frontal alpha oscillations, associated with unconsciousness.(More)
BACKGROUND Ketamine rapidly reduces thoughts of suicide in patients with treatment-resistant depression who are at low risk for suicide. However, the extent to which ketamine reduces thoughts of suicide in depressed patients with current suicidal ideation remains unknown. METHODS Between April 2012 and October 2013, 14 outpatients with DSM-IV-diagnosed(More)
Understanding the neural basis of consciousness is fundamental to neuroscience research. Disruptions in cortico-cortical connectivity have been suggested as a primary mechanism of unconsciousness. By using a novel combination of positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we studied anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and recovery(More)
OBJECTIVE Preliminary evidence supports the safety and efficacy of subanesthetic ketamine as an experimental antidepressant, although its effects are often not sustained beyond one week. Studies are lacking that have examined the sustained effects of escalating ketamine doses as augmentation in outpatients with treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, the(More)
BACKGROUND Anaesthetic drugs act at sites within the brain that undergo profound changes during typical ageing. We postulated that anaesthesia-induced brain dynamics observed in the EEG change with age. METHODS We analysed the EEG in 155 patients aged 18-90 yr who received propofol (n=60) or sevoflurane (n=95) as the primary anaesthetic. The EEG spectrum(More)
OBJECTIVES Switching from maintenance of general anesthesia with an ether anesthetic to maintenance with high-dose (concentration >50% and total gas flow rate >4 liters per minute) nitrous oxide is a common practice used to facilitate emergence from general anesthesia. The transition from the ether anesthetic to nitrous oxide is associated with a switch in(More)
OBJECTIVE An emerging paradigm for understanding how anesthetics induce altered arousal is relating receptor targeting in specific neural circuits to electroencephalogram (EEG) activity. Enhanced gamma amino-butyric acid A (GABAA) inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) manifest with large-amplitude slow (0.1-1Hz) and frontally coherent alpha (8-12Hz) EEG(More)
BACKGROUND Electroencephalogram patterns observed during sedation with dexmedetomidine appear similar to those observed during general anesthesia with propofol. This is evident with the occurrence of slow (0.1 to 1 Hz), delta (1 to 4 Hz), propofol-induced alpha (8 to 12 Hz), and dexmedetomidine-induced spindle (12 to 16 Hz) oscillations. However, these(More)
BACKGROUND General anaesthesia induces highly structured oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in adults, but the anaesthesia-induced EEG in paediatric patients is less understood. Neural circuits undergo structural and functional transformations during development that might be reflected in anaesthesia-induced EEG oscillations. We therefore(More)