Kar Man Leung

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Oxygen consumption in marine sediments is often coupled to the oxidation of sulphide generated by degradation of organic matter in deeper, oxygen-free layers. Geochemical observations have shown that this coupling can be mediated by electric currents carried by unidentified electron transporters across centimetre-wide zones. Here we present evidence that(More)
Strategies are being developed to harvest the energy content of the wasted sludge generated from the treatment of domestic wastewater. Sludge can be hydrolysed and fermented, giving a mixture of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Based on the composition of such a fermented stream, synthetic media were created and tested for VFA conversion in microbial fuel cells(More)
Bacterial nanowires are extracellular appendages that have been suggested as pathways for electron transport in phylogenetically diverse microorganisms, including dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria and photosynthetic cyanobacteria. However, there has been no evidence presented to demonstrate electron transport along the length of bacterial nanowires.(More)
The study of electrical transport in biomolecular materials is critical to our fundamental understanding of physiology and to the development of practical bioelectronics applications. In this study, we investigated the electronic transport characteristics of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 nanowires by conducting-probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) and by(More)
BACKGROUND To improve asthma disease management, the National Asthma Education Program (NAEP) Expert Panel published Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma in 1991. OBJECTIVES To compare the current status of asthma disease management among patients in a large health maintenance organization with the NAEP guidelines and to identify the(More)
The objectives of this study were to validate a claims-based algorithm for identification of patients with newly diagnosed carcinoma of the breast and to optimize the algorithm. Claims data from all females aged 21 years or older who enrolled in a large California health maintenance organization during the study period from October 1, 1994 through March 31,(More)
Therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are commonly produced by high-expressing, clonal, mammalian cells. Creation of these clones for manufacturing remains heavily reliant on stringent selection and gene amplification, which in turn can lead to genetic instability, variable expression, product heterogeneity and prolonged development(More)
Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic-abiotic interaction, the(More)
The objective of this study was to examine the compliance with the National Asthma Education Program (NAEP) guidelines among asthmatic members of eight health plans (regions) in seven states, as well as the factors related to the compliance. Information was gathered by means of a cross-sectional survey in a managed care environment. The participants were(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to pregnancy and childbirth that might be predictive of a patient's length of stay after delivery and to model variations in length of stay. METHODS California hospital discharge data on maternity patients (n = 499,912) were analyzed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to adjust for(More)