Kar Kheng Yeoh

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Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) have a gain-of-function effect leading to R(-)-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) accumulation. By using biochemical, structural and cellular assays, we show that either or both R- and S-2HG inhibit 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases with varying potencies. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values(More)
Chronic hypoxia decreases cardiomyocyte respiration, yet the mitochondrial mechanisms remain largely unknown. We investigated the mitochondrial metabolic pathways and enzymes that were decreased following in vivo hypoxia, and questioned whether hypoxic adaptation was protective for the mitochondria. Wistar rats were housed in hypoxia (7 days acclimatisation(More)
Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is regulated by dual pathways involving oxygen-dependent prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation of its α-subunits. Prolyl hydroxylation at two sites within a central degradation domain promotes association of HIF-α with the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitin E3 ligase and destruction by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. Asparaginyl(More)
The HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) hydroxylases [PHDs or EGLNs (prolyl hydroxylases), which in humans are PHD isoforms 1-3, and FIH (factor inhibiting HIF)] regulate HIF levels and activity. These enzymes are Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases, many of which are stimulated by ascorbate. We have investigated the ascorbate dependence of PHD2-catalysed(More)
This report demonstrates that solvent water relaxation measurements can be used for quantitative screening of ligand binding and for mechanistic investigations of enzymes containing paramagnetic metal centers by using conventional NMR instrumentation at high field. The method was exemplified using prolyl hydroxylase domain containing enzyme 2 (PHD2), a(More)
Infarction irreversibly damages the heart, with formation of an akinetic scar that may lead to heart failure. Endogenous cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are a promising candidate cell source for restoring lost tissue and thereby preventing heart failure. CSCs may be isolated in vitro, via the formation of cardiospheres, to give cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs).(More)
The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) system is central to the signaling of low oxygen (hypoxia) in animals. The levels of HIF-α isoforms are regulated in an oxygen-dependent manner by the activity of the HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHD or EGLN enzymes), which are Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenases. Here, we describe biochemical,(More)
Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), which can be isolated from heart explants, are a promising candidate cell source for infarcted myocardium regeneration. However, current protocols used to expand CDCs require at least 1 month in vitro to obtain sufficient cells for transplantation. We report that CDC culture can be optimized by preconditioning the cells(More)
The JmjC oxygenases catalyze the N-demethylation of N(ε)-methyl lysine residues in histones and are current therapeutic targets. A set of human 2-oxoglutarate analogues were screened using a unified assay platform for JmjC demethylases and related oxygenases. Results led to the finding that daminozide (N-(dimethylamino)succinamic acid, 160 Da), a plant(More)
Limited proteolysis coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric analyses can be used to screen for compounds that alter protein structure by monitoring stabilizing/destabilizing effects with respect to the rate and nature of proteolysis. When applied to prolyl hydroxylase 2, a key enzyme involved in human oxygen(More)