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Knowledge about spinal loading is required for designing and preclinical testing of spinal implants. It is assumed that loading of the spine depends upon body weight and height, as well as on the spine level, but a direct measurement of the loading conditions throughout the spine is not yet possible. Here, computer models can allow an estimation of the(More)
A direct measurement of the complete loads in the spine continues to remain elusive. Analytical musculoskeletal models to predict the internal loading conditions generally neglect or strongly simplify passive soft tissue structures. However, during large intervertebral motions, passive structures such as ligaments and the stiffness of the intervertebral(More)
The ligamentous spinal column buckles under compressive loads of even less than 100N. Experimental results showed that under the follower load constraint, the ligamentous lumbar spine can sustain large compressive loads without buckling, while at the same time maintaining its flexibility reasonably well. The purpose of this study was to investigate the(More)
The placement of artificial disks can alter the center of rotation and kinematic pattern; therefore, forces in the spine during the motion will be affected as a result. The relationship between the location of joint center of artificial disks and forces in the spinal components is not investigated. A musculoskeletal model of the spine was developed, and(More)
This study investigated that the spinal MFs can create compressive follower loads (CFLs) in the lumbar spine in a dynamic state. Three-dimensional optimization and finite element (FE) models of the spinal system were developed and validated using reported experimental data. An optimization analysis was performed to determine the MFs that create CFLs in the(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of demineralized bone particle/ poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (DBP/PLGA) scaffolds on the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). DBP/PLGA hybrid scaffolds were fabricated by solvent casting/salt-leaching with DBP contents of 0, 20, 40, and 80 wt%. MSCs were seeded on the DBP/PLGA scaffolds and(More)
1. Abstract A 2-dimensional lumbar spine is modeled with 64 back muscles and the static behavior of the model is predicted using an optimization technique. The goal of this study was to investigate if a follower load can be produced by the back muscles for enhancing the mechanical stability of the lumbar spine in a quiet standing posture. Recent studies(More)
Different opinions exist about the reasonability of total disc replacement in the human lumbar spine in the case that more than one natural disc should be replaced by an artificial one. Simulation of the biomechanical situations after surgery can help to estimate the reasonability of these procedures. The spinal shape during upright standing after surgery(More)
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