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The notion that plants use specialized metabolism to protect against environmental stresses needs to be experimentally proven by addressing the question of whether stress tolerance by specialized metabolism is directly due to metabolites such as flavonoids. We report that flavonoids with radical scavenging activity mitigate against oxidative and drought(More)
The natural environment for plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and biotic stresses. Plant responses to these stresses are equally complex. Systems biology approaches facilitate a multi-targeted approach by allowing one to identify regulatory hubs in complex networks. Systems biology takes the molecular parts (transcripts, proteins and(More)
Petunias (Petunia hybrida cv. 'Mitchell') accumulate free proline (Pro) under drought-stress conditions. It is therefore believed that Pro acts as an osmoprotectant in plants subjected to drought conditions. Petunia plants were transformed by Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase genes (AtP5CS from Arabidopsis thaliana L. or OsP5CS from Oryza sativa(More)
DREB1A/CBF3 and DREB2A are transcription factors that specifically interact with a cis-acting dehydration-responsive element (DRE), which is involved in cold- and dehydration-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Overexpression of DREB1A improves stress tolerance to both freezing and dehydration in transgenic plants. In contrast,(More)
Polyamines (PAs) are small aliphatic polycations that are found ubiquitously in all organisms. In plants, PAs are involved in diverse biological processes such as growth, development, and stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the arginine decarboxylase enzymes (ADC1 and 2) catalyze the first step of PA biosynthesis. For a better understanding of PA(More)
Water deficit may occur at any stage of crop development, affecting productivity and causing economic losses. In response to drought, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are accumulated in plant tissues stabilizing and protecting cell membranes and keeping the vital functions. The enzyme galactinol synthase (GolS, EC catalyzes the first step(More)
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