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We report the first quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment over a 72 dB channel loss using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPD, SNSPD) with the dark count rate (DCR) of 0.01 cps. The DCR of the SSPD, which is dominated by the blackbody radiation at room temperature, is blocked by introducing cold optical bandpass filter. We employ the(More)
Integrated photonic circuits are one of the most promising platforms for large-scale photonic quantum information systems due to their small physical size and stable interferometers with near-perfect lateral-mode overlaps. Since many quantum information protocols are based on qubits defined by the polarization of photons, we must develop integrated building(More)
A theoretical and experimental study of the backscattering characteristics of a picosecond pulse scattered from a dense diffusing medium is presented. The theory uses a diffusion solution to the time-dependent equation of radiative transfer and the formulation of a picosecond range-gating technique. The experimental system consists of a high-power laser(More)
Entangled photon-pair sources based on spontaneous parametric processes are widely used in photonic quantum information experiments. In this paper, we clarify the relationship between average photon-pair number and the visibility of two-photon interference (TPI) using those entanglement sources. We consider sources that generate distinguishable and(More)
We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon(More)
An inversion technique was developed for determining the size distribution of randomly distributed tenuous scatterers from the forward scattering pattern. This technique is applicable for 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D scatterers. It does not require matrix inversion or a priori knowledge of functional forms of the size distribution, and it takes advantage of the fast(More)
The dark-count rate (DCR) is a key parameter of single-photon detectors. By introducing a bulk optical band-pass filter mounted on a fiber-to-fiber optical bench cooled at 3 K and blocking down to 5 μm, we suppressed the DCR of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector by more than three orders of magnitude. The DCR is limited by the blackbody(More)
Quantum digital signatures (QDSs) apply quantum mechanics to the problem of guaranteeing message integrity and non-repudiation with information-theoretical security, which are complementary to the confidentiality realized by quantum key distribution (QKD). Previous experimental demonstrations have been limited to transmission distances of less than 5 km of(More)
We propose a countermeasure against the so-called tailored bright illumination attack for differential-phase-shift QKD (DPS-QKD). By monitoring a rate of coincidence detection at a pair of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPDs) which is connected at each of the output ports of Bob's Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Alice and Bob can detect and(More)
Ensuring the integrity and transferability of digital messages is an important challenge in modern communications. Although purely mathematical approaches exist, they usually rely on the computational complexity of certain functions, in which case there is no guarantee of long-term security. Alternatively, quantum digital signatures offer security(More)