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Inflammation is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. In this Review, we discuss inducers, sensors, transducers, and effectors of neuroinflammation that contribute to neuronal dysfunction and death. Although inducers of inflammation may be(More)
Nurr1, an orphan nuclear receptor, plays an essential role in the generation and maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Rare mutations in Nurr1 are associated with familial Parkinson's disease, but the underlying basis for this relationship has not been established. Here, we demonstrate that Nurr1 unexpectedly functions to inhibit expression of(More)
BACKGROUND Monocytes and macrophages express an extensive repertoire of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that regulate inflammation and immunity. In this study we performed a systematic micro-array analysis of GPCR expression in primary mouse macrophages to identify family members that are either enriched in macrophages compared to a panel of other cell(More)
Microglia - resident myeloid-lineage cells in the brain and the spinal cord parenchyma - function in the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. Microglia also act as sentinels of infection and injury, and participate in both innate and adaptive immune responses in the central nervous system. Microglia can become activated and/or dysregulated in the(More)
The development and function of alphabetaT lymphocytes depend on signals derived from pre-T and alphabetaT cell receptors (preTCR and alphabetaTCR) (reviewed in refs 1, 2). The engagement of these receptors leads to the activation of Lck and Fyn, which are protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) of the Src family. It remains unclear to what extent the activation of(More)
Members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors regulate diverse aspects of immunity and inflammation by both positively and negatively regulating gene expression. Here, we review recent studies providing insights into the distinct mechanisms that enable nuclear receptors to antagonize pro-inflammatory programmes of(More)
HLA-A2402-restricted and carcinoembryonic-antigen(CEA)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) were induced by culturing human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) on formalin-fixed autologous adhesive PBMC that had been loaded with CEA-bound latex beads. The CTL killed the CEA-producing HLA-type matched cancer cells, but not the non-producers of CEA,(More)
Microglia and astrocytes play essential roles in the maintenance of homeostasis within the central nervous system, but mechanisms that control the magnitude and duration of responses to infection and injury remain poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that 5-androsten-3β,17β-diol (ADIOL) functions as a selective modulator of estrogen receptor (ER)β(More)
The nature of signals that govern the development of immunoglobulin heavy chain-dependent B cells is largely unknown. Using mice deficient for the B cell-expressed Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs) Blk, Fyn and Lyn, we show an essential role of these kinases in pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR)- mediated NF-kappaB activation and B cell development.(More)
Bam32 is an adaptor protein recruited to the plasma membrane upon B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking in a phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner; however, its physiologic function is unclear. To determine its physiologic function, we produced Bam32-deficient mice. Bam32(-/-) B cells develop normally but have impaired T-independent antibody(More)