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siDirect (http://design.RNAi.jp/) is a web-based online software system for computing highly effective small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences with maximum target-specificity for mammalian RNA interference (RNAi). Highly effective siRNA sequences are selected using novel guidelines that were established through an extensive study of the relationship between(More)
We propose rational designing of antiviral short-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting highly divergent HIV-1. In this study, conserved regions within HIV-1 genomes were identified through an exhaustive computational analysis, and the functionality of siRNAs targeting the highest possible conserved regions was validated. We present several promising antiviral(More)
Mushroom bodies (MBs) are the centers for olfactory associative learning and elementary cognitive functions in the Drosophila brain. As a way to systematically elucidate genes preferentially expressed in MBs, we have analyzed genome-wide alterations in transcript profiles associated with MB ablation by hydroxyurea. We selected 100 genes based on microarray(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) is the process of long, double-stranded (ds), RNA-dependent posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). In lower eukaryotes, dsRNA introduced into the cytoplasm is cleaved by the RNaseIII-like enzyme, Dicer, to 21-23 nt RNA (short interfering [si] RNA), which may serve as guide for target mRNA degradation. In mammals,(More)
Off-target effects are one of the most serious problems in RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we present dsCheck (http://dsCheck.RNAi.jp/), web-based online software for estimating off-target effects caused by the long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) used in RNAi studies. In the biochemical process of RNAi, the long dsRNA is cleaved by Dicer into short-interfering(More)
In Drosophila, the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway controls antibacterial peptide gene expression in the fat body in response to Gram-negative bacterial infection. The ultimate target of the Imd pathway is Relish, a transactivator related to mammalian P105 and P100 NF-kappaB precursors. Relish is processed in order to translocate to the nucleus, and this(More)
Neurons are highly polarized cells with distinct subcellular compartments, including dendritic arbors and an axon. The proper function of the nervous system relies not only on correct targeting of axons, but also on development of neuronal-class-specific geometry of dendritic arbors [1-4]. To study the intercellular control of the shaping of dendritic trees(More)
siVirus (http://siVirus.RNAi.jp/) is a web-based online software system that provides efficient short interfering RNA (siRNA) design for antiviral RNA interference (RNAi). siVirus searches for functional, off-target minimized siRNAs targeting highly conserved regions of divergent viral sequences. These siRNAs are expected to resist viral mutational escape,(More)
Physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms in mammals are orchestrated by a central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Photic input entrains the phase of the central clock, and many peripheral clocks are regulated by neural or hormonal output from the SCN. We established cell lines derived from the rat(More)
The genetically amenable organism Drosophila melanogaster has been estimated to have 14,076 protein coding genes in the genome, according to the flybase release note R5.13 (http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/static_pages/docs/release_notes.html). Recent application of RNA interference (RNAi) to the study of developmental biology in Drosophila has enabled us to(More)