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Human red cell AQP1 is the first functionally defined member of the aquaporin family of membrane water channels. Here we describe an atomic model of AQP1 at 3.8A resolution from electron crystallographic data. Multiple highly conserved amino-acid residues stabilize the novel fold of AQP1. The aqueous pathway is lined with conserved hydrophobic residues that(More)
The entry and exit of water from cells is a fundamental process of life. Recognition of the high water permeability of red blood cells led to the proposal that specialized water pores exist in the plasma membrane. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and functional studies of an erythrocyte integral membrane protein of relative molecular mass 28,000, identified it(More)
Bacteriorhodopsin is a transmembrane protein that uses light energy, absorbed by its chromophore retinal, to pump protons from the cytoplasm of bacteria such as Halobacterium salinarium into the extracellular space. It is made up of seven alpha-helices, and in the bacterium forms natural, two-dimensional crystals called purple membranes. We have analysed(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the mammalian brain and an important drug target for treatment of cerebral edema, bipolar disorder and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We determined the AQP4 structure by electron crystallography of double-layered, two-dimensional (2D) crystals. The structure allows us to discuss how the expression ratio(More)
NMO-IgG, a disease-specific autoantibody for neuromyelitis optica, recognizes aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and has been examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-AQP4 antibodies by establishing methods for expression in a baculovirus system and purification of recombinant AQP4 as antigen.(More)
PSD-Zip45 (also named Homer 1c/Vesl-1L) is a synaptic scaffolding protein, which interacts with neurotransmitter receptors and other scaffolding proteins to target them into post-synaptic density (PSD), a specialized protein complex at the synaptic junction. Binding of the PSD-Zip45 to the receptors and scaffolding proteins results in colocalization and(More)
The fold of human aquaporin 1 is determined from cryo-electron microscopic data at 4.5 A resolution. The monomeric structure consists of two transmembrane triple helices arranged around a pseudo-2-fold axis connected by a long flexible extracellular loop. Each triplet contains between its second and third helix a functional loop containing the highly(More)
Electron crystallography of 2D protein crystals provides a powerful tool for the determination of membrane protein structure. In this method, data is acquired in the Fourier domain as randomly sampled, uncoupled, amplitudes and phases. Due to physical constraints on specimen tilting, those Fourier data show a vast un-sampled "missing cone" of information,(More)
Aquaporin-1 is a water channel found in mammalian red blood cells that is responsible for high water permeability of its membrane. Our electron crystallographic analysis of the three-dimensional structure of aquaporin-1 at 4.5-A resolution confirms the previous finding that each subunit consists of a right-handed bundle of six highly tilted transmembrane(More)
The minimal requirements were defined as necessary for cluster formation of the group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR), which is regulated by the Homer/vesl family of scaffolding proteins [Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 10 (2000) 370]. Cluster formation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) plays a fundamental role in signal transduction, particularly at(More)
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